6 Elements Combine To Form Ionic Compounds And Molecular -PDF Free Download

6 Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular

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Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds. 209 Shown here is a mixture of two ordinary compounds: a component of bath salts called magnesium sulphate and a common pesticide called copper(II) sulphate. The crystals are magnified about 100 times. Skills You Will Use In this chapter, you will:



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Shown here is a mixture of two ordinary Skills You Will Use
compounds a component of bath salts called
magnesium sulphate and a common pesticide In this chapter you will
called copper II sulphate The crystals are
conduct inquiries into the physical and chemical properties
magnified about 100 times
of common compounds
build models of simple molecules
plan and conduct an inquiry into the properties of common
household and laboratory substances
Concepts You Will Learn
In this chapter you will
distinguish between elements and compounds and
describe some common compounds
assess social environmental and economic impacts of the
use of elements and compounds
identify name and write the formulas for some types of
Why It Is Important
Most substances on Earth do not exist in the form of pure
elements The combination of elements to form compounds
results in new substances with distinct properties The water
you drink your clothes your hair and the desk you sit at are
made of chemical compounds Understanding the properties
of different compounds will help you to make decisions that
take into account their uses and potential hazards
Before Writing
What s My Topic
Good writers let their readers know very quickly the
topic of their writing Check the opening sentences of
the paragraphs in section 6 1 How many of them state
the topic clearly and up front
chemical bond chemical formula ionic bond
ionic compound molecular compound molecule
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 209
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6 1 How Compounds Form
Here is a summary of what you
will learn in this section
Compounds are composed of
two or more elements that
combine in a specific ratio
Ionic compounds form when
metallic and non metallic
elements combine chemically
Molecular compounds form
when non metallic elements
combine chemically
Figure 6 1 Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound that may be used to create
highlights in hair
Hydrogen peroxide Chemicals Everywhere
Strong oxidizer Keep out of contact with finely divided
reducing agents and metals Can only be stored for
We live in a chemical world Every kind of substance that you
prolonged periods of time if stabilized with a little
phosphoric acid and stored in amber bottles
can think of is made of a type of chemical or mixture of
chemicals Water is a chemical and the air you breathe is a
Stability mixture of chemicals The ink in your pen hair dyes and
CORROSIVE 3 bleaches the lead lined cover that protects you during a dental
Storage X ray and life saving medicines are all made of chemicals too
7 Figure 6 1
A quick look around your home will reveal an amazing variety
of chemicals in your cupboards and on your shelves In the
bathroom you will find water soap shampoo deodorant and
0 toothpaste all chemicals In the storage area you might find
Flammability
cleaning products such as ammonia and bleach and perhaps
4 5 painting and gardening products In your kitchen you might find
Health Reactivity
table salt baking soda and baking powder Each of these products
contains one or more chemical compounds
Figure 6 2 People using a chemical
such as hydrogen peroxide in their A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements
workplace must by law be trained in
the meaning of all the safety symbols
that are chemically combined For example water is a compound
on the label consisting of hydrogen and oxygen Hydrogen peroxide is also a
210 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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compound of hydrogen and oxygen but with completely different Table 6 1 Properties of Water
and Hydrogen Peroxide
properties than water Figure 6 2 on the previous page Some of
the differences between water and hydrogen peroxide are listed in Water H2O
Table 6 1 Hydrogen peroxide is a blue liquid that can dissolve in colourless liquid
boils at 100 C
water to form a solution which is commonly available in
stable in strong sunlight
pharmacies In certain concentrations it can be used on skin to kill dissolves the chemical
bacteria or in hair as a bleaching agent potassium iodide
does not bleach pigments
All compounds have properties that make them potentially
useful as well as hazardous If a highly concentrated solution of Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
hydrogen peroxide gets on the skin it will cause a chemical burn blue liquid
Even water if consumed in huge volumes can make a person boils at 150 2 C
breaks down in light
sick Understanding the properties of compounds gives us the reacts with the chemical
knowledge to make use of compounds safely and responsibly potassium iodide
strong bleaching agent
B20 Quick Lab
Water and Hydrogen Peroxide Teacher Demonstration
Purpose 2 Your teacher will dip one piece of cobalt chloride
To observe properties of water and hydrogen peroxide paper into water and another into hydrogen
peroxide solution Observe the cobalt chloride
3 Observe as your teacher pours water into a
beaker and then stirs in some potassium iodide
Materials Equipment
blue litmus paper potassium iodide
4 Your teacher will place the graduated cylinder in
two 400 mL beakers crystals
the basin and then pour 20 mL of hydrogen
water 250 mL graduated
peroxide solution and 3 drops of dish soap into
hydrogen peroxide the graduated cylinder Observe as your teacher
solution basin
adds a small scoop of potassium iodide crystals
cobalt chloride paper dish soap
5 Step 4 will produce bubbles of gas Observe as
scoopula matches
your teacher places a glowing splint into the gas
stirring rod wooden splint
CAUTION Hydrogen peroxide is corrosive to skin
Potassium iodide will stain skin and clothing 6 Describe three differences in the properties of
water and hydrogen peroxide that you observed
1 Your teacher will dip one piece of blue litmus
paper into water and another into hydrogen
peroxide solution Observe the litmus paper
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 211
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During Writing Two Types of Compounds
Staying on Topic A small change in the way the atoms combine can make a big
Writers support their topic difference in the chemical and physical properties of compounds
sentence by adding sentences Although millions of compounds have been discovered almost all
with details that relate to the of them can be classified as one of two types ionic or molecular
topic Each new sentence
seems to flow logically from the
words and ideas in the previous Ionic Compounds
one Notice how the paragraph Common table salt is familiar to most people as a white substance
about salt seems unified composed of tiny crystals As discussed in Chapter 5 sodium
because all the sentences
chloride forms when a very reactive metal sodium is placed
support our understanding of
in a container with a poisonous yellow green non metal
chlorine gas Figure 6 3 When these two chemical elements are
combined the sodium metal explodes in a bright orange flame As
the sodium burns a white coarse grained powder is produced
This new substance has properties that are very different from
the properties of sodium and chlorine The substance is table salt
or sodium chloride NaCl
Suggested Activity Sodium chloride is called an ionic compound Ionic
B21 Quick Lab on page 215 compounds are pure substances usually consisting of at least one
metal and one non metal Most ionic compounds share the
following properties
have high melting points
form crystals which are very regular arrangements of
dissolve in water to form solutions that conduct electricity
Figure 6 3 Sodium a is a metal Sodium combines with chlorine gas in a violent reaction b The compound that forms is sodium
chloride NaCl c
212 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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All ionic compounds are solids at room temperature In fact W O R D S M AT T E R
table salt will not melt until it is heated to 800 C When sodium The word ion comes from a Greek
word meaning to go or to wander
chloride is dissolved in water or melted it will conduct electricity
Investigations of this property led to the study of electrochemical
cells which can convert chemical energy into electricity
Forming Ionic Compounds
While combining each atom changes into an ion Ions form when
one or more electrons move from a metal atom over to a non
metal atom This process is shown in Figure 6 4
Na Cl Na Cl
Figure 6 4 A sodium atom becomes a positive ion when it loses an electron to chlorine By gaining
an electron chlorine becomes chloride a negative ion Together they form an ionic compound
As the figure shows a sodium atom loses an electron by giving
it to a chlorine atom This produces a positive sodium ion and a
negative chloride ion
Positive and negative ions attract each other so in an ionic
compound all the positive ions are attracted to all the negative
ions A connection between atoms or ions is known as a bond
The attractions between ions are called ionic bonds The ionic
bonds cause the ions to group together in an alternating pattern
called a crystal arrangement Figure 6 5
Figure 6 5 The crystals in this table
Learning Checkpoint salt are held together by ionic
1 What is the main difference between a compound and an element
2 What two kinds of elements join together to form an ionic compound
3 What is an ionic bond
4 How must atoms change so that they can join to form an ionic compound
5 What physical property or properties could you use to identify an ionic
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 213
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Suggested Activity Molecular Compounds
B23 Quick Lab on page 216
When non metals combine a pure substance called a molecular
compound is formed In molecular compounds the atoms share
electrons to form small groups called molecules Most molecular
compounds share the following properties
can be solids liquids or gases at room temperature
usually good insulators but poor conductors of electricity
have relatively low boiling points
Examples of molecular compounds include table sugar hydrogen
peroxide and water
How can the same two elements hydrogen and oxygen
combine to form compounds as different as water and hydrogen
peroxide Water is made from joining two atoms of hydrogen to
one atom of oxygen This forms a water molecule and this is the
Take It Further smallest possible amount of water that can exist We often
Hydrogen peroxide is considered
represent this as H2O where the subscript 2 indicates that two
to be a more environmentally
friendly alternative to chlorine atoms of hydrogen are included Hydrogen peroxide is formed
bleaches It is currently used in when four atoms two each of hydrogen and oxygen join to
many paper processing facilities to
form a single molecule This molecule is represented as H2O2
produce white paper instead of
using the more harmful chlorine There are a number of ways to represent the atoms in a
The chemical activity of the molecule In every representation of water in Figure 6 6 two
hydrogen peroxide changes the
hydrogen atoms are connected to an oxygen atom in the middle
colour of the fibre in paper to
white With a partner create a The Bohr diagram of water shows that each hydrogen atom
pamphlet to advertise one of the shares a pair of electrons with the oxygen atom a In the ball
many other uses of hydrogen
and stick model a stick represents each bond between atoms b
peroxide Begin your research at
ScienceSource In the third diagram the areas in which the atoms overlap
represents the connections that holds them together c
Figure 6 6 Representations of a water molecule a a Bohr diagram b a ball and stick model in which the sticks represent connections
between atoms c a diagram with overlap between atoms to show how they are connected
214 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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B21 Quick Lab
Salt and Sugar
Adding sugar to your tea or salt to your soup not 4 Use a clean spoon to add one small spoonful of
only changes the way your food tastes it will dissolve sodium chloride to the third beaker Use the
to form a solution That solution may or may not be spoon to stir until the sodium chloride is
able to conduct an electric current dissolved
5 When your solutions are prepared use a battery
operated conductivity tester to determine whether
To compare the conductivity of different compounds any of the three samples conduct electricity
sodium chloride table salt and sucrose table
sugar Questions
6 Sodium chloride and sucrose are both shiny
Materials Equipment
white crystals and both dissolve in water What
three 100 mL beakers sucrose table sugar evidence shows which of these crystals is an
marker sodium chloride ionic compound
tap water table salt
7 Suggest why it is often unsafe to have high
2 small spoons battery operated
voltage electricity near water Refer to the results
conductivity tester
of your experiment in your answer
1 Use the marker to label three 100 mL beakers
as water sucrose and sodium chloride
2 Fill each beaker with 50 mL of tap water Set the
beaker labelled water aside
3 Add one small spoonful of sucrose to the second
beaker Use the spoon to stir until the sucrose is
dissolved Figure 6 7 A conductivity tester
B22 Skill Builder Activity
Molecular Model Kits
In this activity you will examine the components of a 1 Examine the model atoms of carbon oxygen
molecular model kit to prepare you to build simple chlorine and hydrogen Build as many
models In the kit balls represent atoms and sticks connections as you can between the different
represent connections between the atoms Carbon is model atoms
represented by a black ball oxygen by a red ball
2 Describe what you observe about the different
chlorine by a green ball and hydrogen by a white
models you built
ball The number of holes in each ball represents the
number of connections the atom can make with
other atoms
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 215
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DI Key Activity
B23 Quick Lab
Building Molecular Models
Chemists use models to gain information about the 2 There are two guidelines that you must follow
shape of a molecule The shape of a molecule is a when building molecular models
good predictor of its properties In this activity you
Each molecule is complete when all the balls
will build ball and stick models of simple molecules
are connected in such a way that all the holes
using a molecular model kit
are filled and every connector ends in a hole
Purpose It is possible in some cases for more than one
To represent the molecules of some common connection to exist between the same two
substances atoms
3 For each of the following build the model and
Materials Equipment then make a sketch of it
molecular model kit a H2O water
b H2 hydrogen gas
c O2 oxygen gas
d CH4 methane also called natural gas
e CH2Cl2 a solvent used as a degreaser
f C2H4 starter material for making
polyethylene plastic
g C3H8 propane a camp fuel
h HCl hydrogen chloride present in stomach
i H2O2 hydrogen peroxide
j CO2 carbon dioxide
4 The following molecules can each be assembled
Figure 6 8 A ball and stick model of glucose a type of
sugar Glucose can be straight as shown here or can twist in two different ways Build and sketch each
into a ring structure a C2H60
Procedure Questions
1 Work in a small group to use the molecular
5 Identify the two molecules that represented
model kit Your teacher will provide specific
elements rather than compounds
information about how to use your particular kit
6 How do the positions of the holes in each kind of
model atom produce a molecule that has a
three dimensional shape
216 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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6 1 CHECK and REFLECT
Key Concept Review 9 Use the diagram below to answer the
following questions
1 What is the difference between a compound
and a mixture
2 What are the two major types of
compounds How do the bonds differ in
3 Give an example of a molecular compound
4 Give an example of a substance held
together by ionic bonds Question 9
5 What types of elements join to form a What type of diagram is shown
molecular compounds Name three such
elements b What type of compound is shown
c Which elements does this compound
6 a What is the total number of atoms in a contain
water molecule
b How many elements are in a water 10 Describe how a salt crystal holds together
molecule 11 Is it possible to wash dishes without using
chemicals Explain
Connect Your Understanding
12 Can compounds have different properties
7 How is it possible for two different than their elements have Explain using an
compounds such as water and hydrogen example
peroxide to both be made of the same two
Reflection
8 Examine the following table of properties 13 Describe three types of models used in this
for two unknown compounds Which is section to represent compounds Which
most likely an ionic compound and which model did you find most useful and why
is most likely a molecular compound
Explain your reasoning 14 Name two compounds that you were
familiar with before reading this section
Properties of Unknown Compounds Now that you have completed this section
what have you learned about these two
Property Compound X Compound Y
Boiling point C 82 1550
Melting point C 90 455
For more questions go to ScienceSource
Conductivity in solution poor good
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 217
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6 2 Names and Formulas of Common Compounds
Here is a summary of what you
will learn in this section
Ionic and molecular
compounds have many uses in
our everyday lives
Compounds can be
represented by chemical
formulas or chemical names
You can use a chemical
formula to write the name for a
compound You can also use
the name of a compound to
write its formula
Figure 6 9 The shells of sea animals and land snails are made up of the compound
calcium carbonate
Common Names and Chemical Names
Have you ever drawn a picture with pastel chalks Some
classrooms use chalk for writing on a chalkboard People
sometimes use another product that contains chalk antacids
Antacids are taken to relieve indigestion The chalk in antacids is
mixed with sweeteners and flavours so that it tastes better
However do not eat drawing chalk for your upset stomach
because these types of chalk and the chalk in antacids are not the
same chemical Drawing chalk is mainly calcium sulphate while
the antacid chalk is calcium carbonate Figure 6 10 Calcium
carbonate is also the main compound in sea shells snail shells
and eggshells Figure 6 9
The different meanings of the term chalk show how
confusing it can be to inaccurately name compounds This
example also shows the importance of using names that provide
information about the chemical composition of a substance The
term chalk gives no hint as to what elements are present in
either compound
Naming Salts
Another example of a common name that can cause confusion is
Figure 6 10 Chalkboard chalk is the word salt We use the word salt as a common term for
composed of calcium sulphate table salt In chemistry salt does not refer to a particular pure
Antacids and some calcium
supplements contain calcium substance In fact it refers to the type of ionic compound Salts
carbonate have similarities in how they are formed and in their properties
218 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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However the term salt does not indicate which specific
elements are found within a compound
In the language of chemistry table salt is called sodium
chloride Sodium chloride is not the same as the salt used on our
roads in winter to melt ice Road salt contains calcium chloride
Calcium chloride is somewhat less harmful to plants than sodium
chloride is Figure 6 11 shows a variety of ionic compounds all of
Figure 6 11 Clockwise from the
which are salts lower left the salts shown here are
Every compound has a chemical name and formula The sodium chloride iron II sulphate
chemical formula identifies which elements and how much of iron III sulphate copper II
sulphate and copper II carbonate
each are in the compound For example sodium chloride s
formula is NaCl Baking soda s chemical name is sodium
hydrogen carbonate and its chemical formula is NaHCO3
B24 Quick Lab
Naming Compounds
Modern naming systems try to reveal a lot about a Questions
compound Work with a partner to uncover as much
3 Locate where each element named in step 1
information as possible about each compound
occurs in the periodic table and suggest answers
Purpose to the following
To interpret chemical names for compounds a What two different kinds of elements are
present in this type of compound
Procedure b What determines the order in which each
element name occurs in the compound
1 Using the periodic table on page 191 work with
a partner and try to figure out from each name
what elements are present in the following c Not all element names that appear in the
compounds Each compound contains two compound names are exactly the same as they
elements only appear on the periodic table What pattern s
are there in how these names are changed
a sodium fluoride prevents tooth decay
b zinc oxide present in mineral supplements 4 In step 2 what patterns can you find in the way
the chemical formulas of these compounds are
c potassium chloride sodium free salt
substitute
d lithium nitride used in some batteries 5 Chemists use both chemical names and
chemical formulas Suggest situations where one
e iron III oxide present in common rust
might be more useful than the other
2 Examine each formula below and determine
6 Your teacher will give you the ingredients list from
what elements are present in each compound
a food product medicine or household product
a CuI a mineral present in copper ore such as shampoo or toothpaste Examine the list
b NaI dietary supplement added to table salt and discuss what kind of chemical information
c CaSO4 drawing chalk you are able to determine about the product from
your analysis of the product label
d CaCO3 main component in eggshells
e Mg OH 2 milk of magnesia an antacid
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 219
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Ion Charges
Each of the elements that commonly form ionic compounds has
an entry in the periodic table showing what ion charge it can
have Table 6 2 shows some examples of ions and their charges
which were taken from the periodic table
The ion notation contains the symbol for the element and a
superscript number and or sign at the top right For
example the lithium ion has a 1 charge which is shown
Iron copper and lead can form an ion in more than one
way A Roman numeral is included in the ion s name to
show the ion s charge For example the name of Fe2 is
iron II which is read iron two The two refers to the
charge Similarly iron III is read iron three and names
the Fe3 ion Table 6 2 shows the connection between the
ion charge and the Roman numeral
The name of non metal ions is formed by taking the
element name and changing the ending so that it includes
the suffix ide For example the element oxygen
produces the ion O2 which is called oxide
Table 6 2 Ion Charges
Element Ion Charge Ion Notation Ion Name
hydrogen 1 H hydrogen
lithium 1 Li lithium
nitrogen 3 N3 nitride
oxygen 2 O2 oxide
magnesium 2 Mg2 magnesium
aluminum 3 Al3 aluminum
iron 2 or 3 Fe2 or Fe3 iron II or iron III
copper 1 or 2 Cu or Cu2 copper I or copper II
lead 2 or 4 Pb2 or Pb4 lead II or lead IV
Learning Checkpoint
1 What is a salt Give an example
2 Explain why using standard chemical names for compounds would be
important when working in a laboratory
3 Refer to the periodic table and write all possible ion charges ion notations
and ion names for ions formed by the following elements
a calcium b chlorine c phosphorus d gold e tin
220 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds
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Naming Ionic Compounds W O R D S M AT T E R
Sodium chloride is essential in the
The following rules explain how to name ionic compounds based diet making it a very valuable
on a given chemical formula compound Armed troops once
guarded the salt supplies of ancient
1 Name the metal ion first The name of the metal ion is the Rome along the Via Salarium Salt
Road and were paid in bags of salt
same as the element name For example in NaCl the name In time their payment changed from
of the Na ion is sodium If the element can form an ion in salt to money and became known as
salarium the origin of the modern
more than one way include a Roman numeral to indicate English word salary
the charge
2 Name the non metal ion second When a non metal
becomes a negative ion the ending of its name changes to
ide For example a chlorine atom Cl gains an electron
to become a chloride ion Cl
3 The name for an ionic compound is a combination of the
ion names of the elements The name of NaCl is therefore
sodium chloride
Name of metal Name of non metal ide
sodium chloride
The formulas of ionic compounds often contain numbers
called subscripts such as the 3 in AuCl3 We will look at the
meaning of subscripts on page 222 If the metal forms only one
type of ion the subscript can be ignored when determining the
compound name In the examples in Table 6 3 each formula is
examined and the two ions present are identified
Table 6 3 Naming Ionic Compounds
Formula Positive Ion Negative Ion Name
MgO Mg2 O2 magnesium oxide
BaF2 Ba2 F barium fluoride
K3N K N3 potassium nitride
Example Problem 6 1 Practice Problems
Write the name of the ionic compound Ag2S Write the names of the
following ionic compounds
1 Name the metal ion Ag forms only one type of ion
Ag so the name is silver
2 Name the non metal ion The atom is sulphur so the
ion is sulphide
3 Combine the names silver sulphide 5 Ca3P2
Elements combine to form ionic compounds and molecular compounds 221
ist9 ch06 qxd 7 21 09 2 55 PM Page 222
Suggested Activity Multivalent Elements
B25 Quick Lab on page 227
Some metals can form more than one type of ion For example
iron has two stable ions Fe2 and Fe3 Elements with more than
one stable ion are called multivalent elements
Ionic compounds containing multivalent
elements must have Roman numerals in their
names to indicate which ion is forming that
compound The Roman numeral is written in
brackets after the element to indicate the charge
For example the compound name iron III oxide
indicates that the Fe3 ion forms that compound
Figure 6 12
You can find the Roman numeral to use in
the name of a multivalent ion by using the
subscripts in the compound s formula For
example in FeBr2 the subscript 2 after the Br is
a guide to the iron ion s charge The positive and
negative charges in an ionic compound must be
equal According to this rule only an Fe2 could
pair up with two Br to give the 1 2 ratio in the
formula FeBr2 is written out as iron II bromide
In FeBr3 only an Fe3 could pair up with three
Br to give the 1 3 ratio in the formula FeBr3 is
written out as iron III bromide
Figure 6 12 Rust contains iron III oxide or Fe2O3 Rust is
produced when iron corrodes
Example Problem 6 2
Practice Problems
Write the name of the ionic compound Cu3N
Write the names of the
following ionic compounds 1 Identify the ions that form the compound Cu and N3
1 FeCl3 2 Use the charge of the non metal ion and the rule that the
total positive and negative charges in the formula must be
2 PbO2 equal Three copper ions are present in the formula so each
3 Ni2S3 must have a charge of 1
4 CuF2 3 Name the metal ion The ion has a 1 charge so the name
is copper I
4 Name the non metal ion The name of the atom is nitrogen
so the ion is nitride
5 Combine the names copper I nitride
222 UNIT B Atoms Elements and Compounds


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