Advanced Textbooks In Control And Signal Processing-PDF Free Download

Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing

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Among these, modelling, planningand control play a basic role, not only in the traditional context of industrial robotics, but also for the advanced scenarios of ?eld and service robots, which have attracted an increasing interest from the research community in the last 15 years. This book is the natural evolution of the previous text ...

Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing
Series Editors
Professor Michael J Grimble Professor of Industrial Systems and Director
Professor Michael A Johnson Professor Emeritus of Control Systems and Deputy Director
Industrial Control Centre Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
University of Strathclyde Graham Hills Building 50 George Street Glasgow G1 1QE UK
Other titles published in this series
Genetic Algorithms Control Systems with Input and Output
K F Man K S Tang and S Kwong Constraints
A H Glattfelder and W Schaufelberger
Introduction to Optimal Estimation
E W Kamen and J K Su Analysis and Control of Non linear
Process Systems
Discrete time Signal Processing K M Hangos J Bokor and
D Williamson G Szederk nyi
Neural Networks for Modelling and Model Predictive Control 2nd Edition
Control of Dynamic Systems E F Camacho and C Bordons
M N rgaard O Ravn N K Poulsen
and L K Hansen Principles of Adaptive Filters and Self
learning Systems
Fault Detection and Diagnosis in A Zaknich
Industrial Systems
L H Chiang E L Russell and R D Braatz Digital Self tuning Controllers
V Bob l J B hm J Fessl and
Soft Computing J Mach ek
L Fortuna G Rizzotto M Lavorgna
Control of Robot Manipulators in
G Nunnari M G Xibilia and R Caponetto
Joint Space
Statistical Signal Processing R Kelly V Santib ez and A Lor a
T Chonavel Receding Horizon Control
Discrete time Stochastic Processes W H Kwon and S Han
2nd Edition Robust Control Design with MATLAB
T S derstr m D W Gu P H Petkov and
Parallel Computing for Real time Signal M M Konstantinov
Processing and Control Control of Dead time Processes
M O Tokhi M A Hossain and J E Normey Rico and E F Camacho
M H Shaheed
Modeling and Control of Discrete event
Multivariable Control Systems Dynamic Systems
P Albertos and A Sala B Hr z and M C Zhou
Bruno Siciliano Lorenzo Sciavicco
Luigi Villani Giuseppe Oriolo
Modelling Planning and Control
Bruno Siciliano PhD Lorenzo Sciavicco DrEng
Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica Dipartimento di Informatica e Automazione
Universit di Napoli Federico II Universit di Roma Tre
Via Claudio 21 Via della Vasca Navale 79
80125 Napoli 00146 Roma
Italy Italy
Luigi Villani PhD Giuseppe Oriolo PhD
Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica
Universit di Napoli Federico II Universit di Roma La Sapienza
Via Claudio 21 Via Ariosto 25
80125 Napoli 00185 Roma
Italy Italy
ISBN 978 1 84628 641 4 e ISBN 978 1 84628 642 1
DOI 10 1007 978 1 84628 642 1
Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing series ISSN 1439 2232
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Control Number 2008939574
2009 Springer Verlag London Limited
MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks Inc 3 Apple Hill Drive Natick MA 01760
2098 USA http www mathworks com
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review as
permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 this publication may only be
reproduced stored or transmitted in any form or by any means with the prior permission in writing of
the publishers or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences
issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms
should be sent to the publishers
The use of registered names trademarks etc in this publication does not imply even in the absence of
a specific statement that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore
free for general use
The publisher makes no representation express or implied with regard to the accuracy of the
information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors
or omissions that may be made
Cover design eStudio Calamar S L Girona Spain
Printed on acid free paper
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to our families
Series Editors Foreword
The topics of control engineering and signal processing continue to ourish and
develop In common with general scienti c investigation new ideas concepts
and interpretations emerge quite spontaneously and these are then discussed
used discarded or subsumed into the prevailing subject paradigm Sometimes
these innovative concepts coalesce into a new sub discipline within the broad
subject tapestry of control and signal processing This preliminary battle be
tween old and new usually takes place at conferences through the Internet and
in the journals of the discipline After a little more maturity has been acquired
by the new concepts then archival publication as a scienti c or engineering
monograph may occur
A new concept in control and signal processing is known to have arrived
when su cient material has evolved for the topic to be taught as a specialised
tutorial workshop or as a course to undergraduate graduate or industrial
engineers Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing are designed
as a vehicle for the systematic presentation of course material for both popular
and innovative topics in the discipline It is hoped that prospective authors will
welcome the opportunity to publish a structured and systematic presentation
of some of the newer emerging control and signal processing technologies in
the textbook series
Robots have appeared extensively in the artistic eld of science ction
writing The actual name robot arose from its use by the playwright Karel
C apek in the play Rossum s Universal Robots 1920 Not surprisingly the
artistic focus has been on mechanical bipeds with anthropomorphic person
alities often termed androids This focus has been the theme of such cine
matic productions as I Robot based on Isaac Asimov s stories and Stanley
Kubrick s lm A I however this book demonstrates that robot technology
is already widely used in industry and that there is some robot technology
which is at prototype stage rapidly approaching introduction to commercial
use Currently robots may be classi ed according to their mobility attributes
as shown in the gure
viii Series Editors Foreword
The largest class of robots extant today is that of the xed robot which
does repetitive but often precise mechanical and physical tasks These robots
pervade many areas of modern industrial automation and are mainly con
cerned with tasks performed in a structured environment It seems highly
likely that as the technology develops the number of mobile robots will signif
icantly increase and become far more visible as more applications and tasks
in an unstructured environment are serviced by robotic technology
What then is robotics A succinct de nition is given in The Chamber s Dic
tionary 2003 the branch of technology dealing with the design construction
and use of robots This de nition certainly captures the spirit of this volume
in the Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing series entitled
Robotics and written by Bruno Siciliano Lorenzo Sciavicco Luigi Villani and
Giuseppe Oriolo This book is a greatly extended and revised version of an
earlier book in the series Modelling and Control of Robot Manipulators 2000
ISBN 978 1 85233 221 1 As can be seen from the gure above robots cover
a wide variety of types and the new book seeks to present a uni ed approach
to robotics whilst focusing on the two leading classes of robots the xed and
the wheeled types The textbook series publishes volumes in support of new
disciplines that are emerging with their own novel identity and robotics as
a subject certainly falls into this category The full scope of robotics lies at
the intersection of mechanics electronics signal processing control engineer
ing computing and mathematical modelling However within this very broad
framework the authors have pursued the themes of modelling planning and
control These are and will remain fundamental aspects of robot design and
operation for years to come Some interesting innovations in this text include
material on wheeled robots and on vision as used in the control of robots
Thus the book provides a thorough theoretical grounding in an area where
the technologies are evolving and developing in new applications
The series is one of textbooks for advanced courses and volumes in the
series have useful pedagogical features This volume has twelve chapters cov
ering both fundamental and specialist topics and there is a Problems section
at the end of each chapter Five appendices have been included to give more
depth to some of the advanced methods used in the text There are over twelve
pages of references and nine pages of index The details of the citations and
index should also facilitate the use of the volume as a source of reference as
Series Editors Foreword ix
well as a course study text We expect that the student the researcher the
lecturer and the engineer will nd this volume of great value for the study of
Glasgow Michael J Grimble
August 2008 Michael A Johnson
In the last 25 years the eld of robotics has stimulated an increasing interest
in a wide number of scholars and thus literature has been conspicuous both
in terms of textbooks and monographs and in terms of specialized journals
dedicated to robotics This strong interest is also to be attributed to the inter
disciplinary character of robotics which is a science having roots in di erent
areas Cybernetics mechanics controls computers bioengineering electron
ics to mention the most important ones are all cultural domains which
undoubtedly have boosted the development of this science
Despite robotics representing as yet a relatively young discipline its foun
dations are to be considered well assessed in the classical textbook literature
Among these modelling planning and control play a basic role not only in the
traditional context of industrial robotics but also for the advanced scenarios
of eld and service robots which have attracted an increasing interest from
the research community in the last 15 years
This book is the natural evolution of the previous text Modelling and Con
trol of Robot Manipulators by the rst two co authors published in 1995 and
in 2000 with its second edition The cut of the original textbook has been
con rmed with the educational goal of blending the fundamental and techno
logical aspects with those advanced aspects on a uniform track as regards a
rigorous formalism
The fundamental and technological aspects are mainly concentrated in the
rst six chapters of the book and concern the theory of manipulator structures
including kinematics statics and trajectory planning and the technology of
robot actuators sensors and control units
The advanced aspects are dealt with in the subsequent six chapters and
concern dynamics and motion control of robot manipulators interaction with
the environment using exteroceptive sensory data force and vision mobile
robots and motion planning
The book contents are organized in 12 chapters and 5 appendices
In Chap 1 the di erences between industrial and advanced applications
are enlightened in the general robotics context The most common mechanical
xii Preface
structures of robot manipulators and wheeled mobile robots are presented
Topics are also introduced which are developed in the subsequent chapters
In Chap 2 kinematics is presented with a systematic and general approach
which refers to the Denavit Hartenberg convention The direct kinematics
equation is formulated which relates joint space variables to operational space
variables This equation is utilized to nd manipulator workspace as well as
to derive a kinematic calibration technique The inverse kinematics problem
is also analyzed and closed form solutions are found for typical manipulation
Di erential kinematics is presented in Chap 3 The relationship between
joint velocities and end e ector linear and angular velocities is described by
the geometric Jacobian The di erence between the geometric Jacobian and
the analytical Jacobian is pointed out The Jacobian constitutes a fundamen
tal tool to characterize a manipulator since it allows the determination of
singular con gurations an analysis of redundancy and the expression of the
relationship between forces and moments applied to the end e ector and the
resulting joint torques at equilibrium con gurations statics Moreover the
Jacobian allows the formulation of inverse kinematics algorithms that solve
the inverse kinematics problem even for manipulators not having a closed form
In Chap 4 trajectory planning techniques are illustrated which deal with
the computation of interpolating polynomials through a sequence of desired
points Both the case of point to point motion and that of motion through
a sequence of points are treated Techniques are developed for generating
trajectories both in the joint space and in the operational space with a special
concern to orientation for the latter
Chapter 5 is devoted to the presentation of actuators and sensors After an
illustration of the general features of an actuating system methods to control
electric and hydraulic drives are presented The most common proprioceptive
and exteroceptive sensors in robotics are described
In Chap 6 the functional architecture of a robot control system is illus
trated The characteristics of programming environments are presented with
an emphasis on teaching by showing and robot oriented programming A gen
eral model for the hardware architecture of an industrial robot control system
is nally discussed
Chapter 7 deals with the derivation of manipulator dynamics which plays
a fundamental role in motion simulation manipulation structure analysis and
control algorithm synthesis The dynamic model is obtained by explicitly tak
ing into account the presence of actuators Two approaches are considered
namely one based on Lagrange formulation and the other based on Newton
Euler formulation The former is conceptually simpler and systematic whereas
the latter allows computation of a dynamic model in a recursive form Notable
properties of the dynamic model are presented including linearity in the pa
rameters which is utilized to develop a model identi cation technique Finally
Preface xiii
the transformations needed to express the dynamic model in the operational
space are illustrated
In Chap 8 the problem of motion control in free space is treated The
distinction between joint space decentralized and centralized control strategies
is pointed out With reference to the former the independent joint control
technique is presented which is typically used for industrial robot control
As a premise to centralized control the computed torque feedforward control
technique is introduced Advanced schemes are then introduced including PD
control with gravity compensation inverse dynamics control robust control
and adaptive control Centralized techniques are extended to operational space
Force control of a manipulator in contact with the working environment
is tackled in Chap 9 The concepts of mechanical compliance and impedance
are de ned as a natural extension of operational space control schemes to the
constrained motion case Force control schemes are then presented which are
obtained by the addition of an outer force feedback loop to a motion control
scheme The hybrid force motion control strategy is nally presented with
reference to the formulation of natural and arti cial constraints describing an
interaction task
In Chap 10 visual control is introduced which allows the use of infor
mation on the environment surrounding the robotic system The problems of
camera position and orientation estimate with respect to the objects in the
scene are solved by resorting to both analytical and numerical techniques
After presenting the advantages to be gained with stereo vision and a suit
able camera calibration the two main visual control strategies are illustrated
namely in the operational space and in the image space whose advantages can
be e ectively combined in the hybrid visual control scheme
Wheeled mobile robots are dealt with in Chap 11 which extends some
modelling planning and control aspects of the previous chapters As far
as modelling is concerned it is worth distinguishing between the kinematic
model strongly characterized by the type of constraint imposed by wheel
rolling and the dynamic model which accounts for the forces acting on the
robot The peculiar structure of the kinematic model is keenly exploited to
develop both path and trajectory planning techniques The control problem
is tackled with reference to two main motion tasks trajectory tracking and
con guration regulation Further it is evidenced how the implementation of
the control schemes utilizes odometric localization methods
Chapter 12 reprises the planning problems treated in Chaps 4 and 11
for robot manipulators and mobile robots respectively in the case when ob
stacles are present in the workspace In this framework motion planning is
referred to which is e ectively formulated in the con guration space Several
planning techniques for mobile robots are then presented retraction cell de
composition probabilistic arti cial potential The extension to the case of
robot manipulators is nally discussed
xiv Preface
This chapter concludes the presentation of the topical contents of the text
book ve appendices follow which have been included to recall background
Appendix A is devoted to linear algebra and presents the fundamental
notions on matrices vectors and related operations
Appendix B presents those basic concepts of rigid body mechanics which
are preliminary to the study of manipulator kinematics statics and dynamics
Appendix C illustrates the principles of feedback control of linear systems
and presents a general method based on Lyapunov theory for control of non
linear systems
Appendix D deals with some concepts of di erential geometry needed for
control of mechanical systems subject to nonholonomic constraints
Appendix E is focused on graph search algorithms and their complexity in
view of application to motion planning methods
The organization of the contents according to the above illustrated scheme
allows the adoption of the book as a reference text for a senior undergrad
uate or graduate course in automation computer electrical electronics or
mechanical engineering with strong robotics content
From a pedagogical viewpoint the various topics are presented in an in
strumental manner and are developed with a gradually increasing level of di
culty Problems are raised and proper tools are established to nd engineering
oriented solutions Each chapter is introduced by a brief preamble providing
the rationale and the objectives of the subject matter The topics needed for a
pro cient study of the text are presented in the ve appendices whose purpose
is to provide students of di erent extraction with a homogeneous background
The book contains more than 310 illustrations and more than 60 worked
out examples and case studies spread throughout the text with frequent resort
to simulation The results of computer implementations of inverse kinemat
ics algorithms trajectory planning techniques inverse dynamics computation
motion force and visual control algorithms for robot manipulators and mo
tion control for mobile robots are presented in considerable detail in order to
facilitate the comprehension of the theoretical development as well as to in
crease sensitivity of application in practical problems In addition nearly 150
end of chapter problems are proposed some of which contain further study
matter of the contents and the book is accompanied by an electronic solu
tions manual downloadable from www springer com 978 1 84628 641 4
containing the MATLAB R
code for computer problems this is available free
of charge to those adopting this volume as a text for courses Special care has
been devoted to the selection of bibliographical references more than 250
which are cited at the end of each chapter in relation to the historical devel
opment of the eld
Finally the authors wish to acknowledge all those who have been helpful
in the preparation of this book
With reference to the original work as the basis of the present textbook
devoted thanks go to Pasquale Chiacchio and Stefano Chiaverini for their
Preface xv
contributions to the writing of the chapters on trajectory planning and force
control respectively Fabrizio Caccavale and Ciro Natale have been of great
help in the revision of the contents for the second edition
A special note of thanks goes to Alessandro De Luca for his punctual and
critical reading of large portions of the text as well as to Vincenzo Lippiello
Agostino De Santis Marilena Vendittelli and Luigi Freda for their contribu
tions and comments on some sections
Naples and Rome Bruno Siciliano
July 2008 Lorenzo Sciavicco
Luigi Villani
Giuseppe Oriolo
1 Introduction 1
1 1 Robotics 1
1 2 Robot Mechanical Structure 3
1 2 1 Robot Manipulators 4
1 2 2 Mobile Robots 10
1 3 Industrial Robotics 15
1 4 Advanced Robotics 25
1 4 1 Field Robots 26
1 4 2 Service Robots 27
1 5 Robot Modelling Planning and Control 29
1 5 1 Modelling 30
1 5 2 Planning 32
1 5 3 Control 32
Bibliography 33
2 Kinematics 39
2 1 Pose of a Rigid Body 39
2 2 Rotation Matrix 40
2 2 1 Elementary Rotations 41
2 2 2 Representation of a Vector 42
2 2 3 Rotation of a Vector 44
2 3 Composition of Rotation Matrices 45
2 4 Euler Angles 48
2 4 1 ZYZ Angles 49
2 4 2 RPY Angles 51
2 5 Angle and Axis 52
2 6 Unit Quaternion 54
2 7 Homogeneous Transformations 56
2 8 Direct Kinematics 58
2 8 1 Open Chain 60
2 8 2 Denavit Hartenberg Convention 61

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