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simulation to model new device types and for black-box modeling of complex systems. In this document, examples are used to show how the Analog Behavioral Modeling feature of PSpice can be used to: Calculate square roots Use ideal non-linearity from look-up tables Design small systems Pass parameters to sub-circuits

Introduction

Behavioral Modeling is the process of developing a model for a device or a system component representing the

behavior rather than from a microscopic description You can use Behavioral Modeling in the domain of analog

simulation to model new device types and for black box modeling of complex systems

In this document examples are used to show how the Analog Behavioral Modeling feature of PSpice can be used

Calculate square roots

Use ideal non linearity from look up tables

Design small systems

Pass parameters to sub circuits

Calculating Square Roots

Assume that you need to create a signal whose voltage is the square root of another signal s voltage A simple

solution is to use a feedback circuit to calculate square roots But this technique fails if the reference signal goes

negative The solution then is to use the functional form of Analog Behavioral Modeling

Esqrt out hi out lo value sqrt abs v input

Figure 1 Square Roots Sub circuit

This model takes the absolute value of the ground referenced signal input before evaluating the square root

function The absolute value function is a nonlinear function

Note You can also use a floating signal pair in the model for example replace v input with v in hi

v in lo or v in hi in lo

Using Ideal Non Linearity from Look up Tables

You can introduce ideal non linearity using the table look up form of Analog Behavioral Modeling For example

the following one line ideal OpAmp model has high gain but its output is clamped between 15 volts

Eamp out 0 table 200K v in hi v in lo

15 15 15 15

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 2 Look up Tables Sub circuit

The input to the table is the differential gain formula but the look up table has only two entries The output of the

table is interpolated between these two endpoints and clamped when the input exceeds the table s range This is

a convenient use of the table look up form available in PSpice

Designing Small Systems

Small systems of behavioral models are easy to design using PSpice For example a true RMS circuit can be

built by decomposing the RMS function

1 Square the signal

2 Integrate over time

3 Take the square root of the time average

These three operations can be bundled in a tiny sub circuit for use as a module

Figure 3 RMS Sub circuit

subckt RMS in out G1 0 1 VALUE V IN V IN

C1 1 0 1 R1 1 0 1G E1 out 0 VALUE IF TIME 0

0 SQRT V 1 TIME ends

The current source G1 squares the signal which is then integrated in the capacitor C1 The voltage on the

capacitor is time averaged and the square root is taken The resistor is a dummy load that satisfies the algorithm

The voltage source E1 shows that the value of simulated time is available in Analog Behavioral Modeling and

may be used as a variable in a formula Note the if than else function If time is less than or equal to zero

APPLICATION NOTE

then the output of E1 is sqrt v 1 time This prevents convergence problems when sqrt v 1 time is

evaluated at time 0

Passing Parameters to Sub Circuits

Parameter passing into sub circuits also works with Analog Behavioral Modeling making your models more

flexible Here is a small system that is a voltage follower with hysteresis useful in simulating say a mechanical

system with gear backlash

Figure 4 Hysteresis Sub circuit

subckt HYS in out params H 1 G1 0 1 TABLE

V IN 1 H 2 2 1G 1 0 1 0 2 1G C1 1 0 1

R1 1 0 1G E1 out 0 1 0 1 ends

In the model the parameter H defines the size of the hysteresis and is used in the formula input to the table The

combination of the formula and table defines a dead band outside of which the output follows the input with an

offset of H 2 The capacitor serves as memory for the circuit and is nearly ideal except for the DC bias resistor

which provides a droop time constant of one billion seconds The voltage follower E1 prevents output loading

problems E1 could also have gain representing the gear ratio of a mechanical system then voltage would

represent the total turn angle of each gear and H the amount of angular backlash

Figure 5 Circuit using RMS and Hysteresis Sub circuit

APPLICATION NOTE

param H 1 V1 in 0 SIN 0 1 1 Xrms 1 rms RMSXhys 1 hys HYS param H 1 tran

A 1Hz sine wave is used for the stimulus to the RMS and HYS circuits

Figure 6 Output from RMS and HYS Circuit

Figure 6 shows a Probe plot of the input and the outputs from each circuit Note that the RMS circuit outputs the

well known result of 0 707 volts after one input cycle while the HYS circuit lags the input by a half volt in

each direction for a total hysteresis of one volt

Amplitude and Balanced Modulation

Multipliers

Multiplier is a behavioral block that performs the mathematical task of multiplying the two inputs and returns the

product as the output Multipliers are often used for signal processing applications In this note two examples are

presented to illustrate the use of a multiplier to make an amplitude modulator and to make a frequency doubler

Amplitude Modulation

Amplitude modulation is a technique which uses a low frequency signal to control the amplitude of a high

frequency signal A simple modulator can be constructed using a multiplier as shown in Figure 7

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 7 A simple amplitude modulator circuit

One input is the high frequency or carrier signal and the other input is the modulating signal

A sinusoidal source at a frequency of 10 kHz is used to represent the carrier signal and a second source at a

frequency of 1 kHz is used to represent the modulating signal Notice that the peak amplitude for the carrier is set

to 1 volt using the parameter VcarrierPK The modulating index is the ratio of the peak of the modulating signal to

the peak of the carrier Here the index is set to 0 8 or 80 modulation A typical broadcast AM signal includes the

carrier as well as the sidebands in the transmission To get such a double sideband transmitted carrier signal

DSBTC we must bias or offset the modulating signal by a value equal to the carrier s peak voltage

The amplitude modulated signal and the modulating signal from this simulation are shown in Figure 8

Figure 8 An amplitude modulator output signal

APPLICATION NOTE

Balanced Modulation

A balanced modulator produces a double sideband suppressed carrier signal DSB SC By setting the offset of

the modulating signal to be zero in the above circuit we will suppress the carrier Notice the output of this

modulator shown in Figure 9 the shape of its upper A balanced modulator output signal envelope resembles a

full wave rectified AC source

Figure 9 A balanced modulator output signal

Frequency Multiplication

Another application for a multiplier is as a frequency doubler see Figure 10 Connecting a sinusoidal source

simultaneously to both inputs of a multiplier will yield a signal with double the input frequency The first multiplier

produces a waveform that has one half the amplitude of the original input signal with a DC offset of one half the

input waveform s peak value The DC offset is removed with a voltage source called Voffset The amplitude of the

original signal is restored with a second multiplier which doubles the signal

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 10 A simple frequency doubler circuit

Figure 11 shows the original input signal as well as the frequency doubled output signal These examples have

illustrated how a multiplier implemented using the E device in PSpice can be used in signal processing

applications such as amplitude modulation and frequency doubling

Figure 11 Output results for frequency doubler

APPLICATION NOTE

Solving Simple Differential Equations

PSpice is well known for its ability to solve the equations which arise in circuit analysis What is less well known is

that PSpice can also be used to solve problems in other domains which can be expressed as differential

equations This article presents some examples of using PSpice as an analog computer to solve sets of

differential equations describing the kinetics of a chemical reaction

Consider a familiar example the voltage across a parallel capacitor resistor combination as a function of time

The circuit equation for this example is

rearranging a little

Because V is a function of the single variable t this is an Ordinary Differential Equation ODE Its solution is the

equation of exponential decay which is

where V0 is the initial voltage on the capacitor

To see how PSpice can be used to solve the equation above consider an ideal integrator Suppose its output is

the voltage we want V Now the input to the ideal integrator is evidently dV dt

A circuit which represents the equation is shown in the following schematic The schematic was drawn using

OrCAD Capture The parts shown come from the Analog Behavioral Modeling ABM symbol library abm olb

supplied with the program The symbols INTEG integrator and MULT multiplier are used

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 12 RC circuit

The symbol containing 1 0 is an integrator with gain 1 Its output is obtained by integrating the voltage at its

input This voltage is constrained to be 1 RC times the output voltage V by closing the feedback loop

This way of setting up differential equations for solution is the way that analog computers were used In this

example an integrator block would be used the constant 1 RC would be supplied by a gain block and using the

inverting input to the integrator would provide the 1

The initial condition for this problem is that the initial voltage is V0 On an analog computer this voltage would be

derived from a reference and patched to the initial condition input of the integrator Using the ABM integrator

symbol INTEG the initial voltage is specified by setting the value of the IC attribute on the symbol

Running a Transient Analysis on the ABM representation of the problem shows the expected exponential decay

of voltage with time

Solving Coupled Differential Equations

Systems of interest usually contain more than one variable There may be several interacting voltages in a circuit

In a chemical reaction the rate of production of a component may depend on the concentrations of several other

components

For example if we have three components x1 x2 and x3 the equations controlling their rates of decay and

production might be

APPLICATION NOTE

Sets of equations like this can be solved using similar techniques to the first problem In this example we would

use three integrators with three feedback loops and three node voltages to solve for x1 x2 and x3

Let s look at a real example This is a chemical system which contains four components x1 x2 x3 and x4 They

are related by four equations containing rate constants the Ks and physical constants R and Q

A schematic containing ABM components for integration summing and taking square roots etc is shown in

Figure 13 It also contains definitions for Q and R the physical constants and the Ks

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 13 Coupled Ordinary Differential Equations ODE implemented using ABM components for integration summing

square roots etc The physical constants Q and R are shown as well as the rate constant K to demonstrate a chemical

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APPLICATION NOTE