Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis Of Inheritance-PDF Free Download

Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

2019 | 4 views | 19 Pages | 3.51 MB

1 | Page Chapter 16 : The Molecular Basis of Inheritance over view: In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick shook the world with an elegant double-helical model for the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) . Hereditary information Is encoded in the chemical language of DNA and reproduced in all the cells of your body.



Figure 16 2 can a genetic trait be transferred between different bacterial strains
After that an american bacteriologist Oswald Avery did a search for the identity of the
transforming substance in Griffith inquiry Avery focused on the three main
candidates DNA RNA protein
Avery used a specific treatment that inactivate one of these 3 candidates then
apply the Griffith inquiry many times to test the 3 substances and the result was
transformation occurred only when the DNA was active
so the transforming agent was DNA
2 Evidence That Viral DNA Can Program Cells
This evidence material Came from studies of a virus that infects bacteria
Viruses that infect bacteria bacteriophages Are widely used as tools by
researchers in molecular genetics
Viruses
Viruses are much simpler than any cell
Virus is a little more than DNA or sometimes RNA enclosed by a protective coat simply protein
to reproduction virus must infect a cell and take over the cells metabolic machinery
Bacteriophages phage bacteria eater
2 Page
The Inquiry
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase Performed experiments showing that DNA is the genetic
They used T2 phage
First of all we know that T2 as another phages is composed of DNA and
protein
T2 could reprogram its host cell infected cell to produce viruses but which viral
component protein Or DNA will still in the cell and reprogramming it
Alferd Hershey and his colleagues answer the question by an experiment showing that
DNA is the genetic material of a phage which called T2
Hershey and Chase experiment

Results are in 2 points
1 they found that phage proteins remained outside the bacterial cells during
infection while phage DNA entered the cells
2 when these bacteria were returned to a culture medium the infection ran its
course and the infected cell released phages that contained some radioactive
phosphorus which was used to label the DNA at the beginning of the experiment
3 Page
3 Additional Evidence That DNA Is the Genetic Material
Prior to the 1950s it was already known that DNA is a polymer of nucleotides each
consists of three components
1 nitrogenous base Adenine or Thymine or Cytosine or Guanine
2 sugar deoxyribose
3 phosphate group
Figure 16 5 The structure of DNA strand
The phosphate of
one nucleotide
attached to the sugar
of the next one
resulting in a
backbone
the polynucleotide
strand has
directionality from
the 5 end with the
phosphate group to
the 3 end with OH
group
the Biochemist Erwin Chargaff noticed
The base composition of DNA varies from one species to another
for example human DNA nucleotide contains A base 30 3 when the DNA of the
bacterium E coil has only 26 A base
There is an equivalence between the bases types in any given species A
approximately equaled to T and c approximately equaled to G Chargaff
rule
the basis of these rules remained un explained until the discovery of the double helix
4 Page
B Building a Structural Model of DNA
Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin Were using a technique called X ray
crystallography to study molecular structure Rosalind Franklin Produced a picture of
the DNA molecule using this technique
James Watson and Frances Crick deduced that DNA was a double helix Through
observations of the X ray crystallographic images of DNA
Franklin had concluded that DNA was composed of two anti parallel sugar phosphate
backbones with the nitrogenous bases paired in the molecule s interior
The nitrogenous bases are paired in specific combinations Adenine with Thymine and
Cytosine with Guanine
Figure 16 7 The double helix
The ribbons in this
diagram represent
the sugar
phosphate
backbones
The 2 strands held
together by
hydrogen bonds
between the
nitrogenous bases
which are paired in
the interior of the
double helix
Note This arrangement was appealing because it put the relatively hydrophobic
nitrogenous bases in the molecules interior and thus away from the surrounding
aqueous solution
5 Page


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