Dairy Plant Design And Layout Agrimoon Com-PDF Free Download

DAIRY PLANT DESIGN AND LAYOUT AgriMoon Com

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Dairy Plant Design and Layout 7 www.AgriMoon.Com Lesson 2. Importance of Dairy Plant Design 2.1 Introduction: Dairy Plant design, involves the estimation of capacity, process scheduling and proper layout so as to achieve the objective of handling milk at the least cost and greatest safety. However, the dairy industry and the plant



Dairy Plant Design Layout
Course Developers
Sunil M Patel A G Bhadania
Department of Dairy Engineering
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 2
Course Outline 3 2 0 2
Module 1 Introduction of Dairy Plant Design and Layout
Lesson 1 Types of Dairies and Perishable nature of milk
Lesson 2 Importance of Dairy Plant Design
Lesson 3 Milk Procurement
Lesson 4 Milk Reception
Lesson 5 Classification of Dairy Plants
Module 2 Location and Site Selection for Dairy Plants
Lesson6 Location of Dairy Plant and Types of Locations
Lesson 7 Location of Fluid Milk Plant and Milk Product Plant
Lesson 8 Site Selection
Lesson 9 Location of Milk Product Plant
Module 3 Planning and principles of dairy plant layout
Lesson 10 Importance of planning and principles of dairy plant design
Lesson 11 Dairy building planning
Lesson 12 Preparation of process schedule
Lesson 13 Space requirement for dairy plant
Lesson 14 Estimation of service requirements including peak load consideration
Module 4 Design aspects of dairy plant
Lesson 15 General points of consideration for designing dairy plant
Lesson 16 Different types of layouts
Lesson 17 Single or multilevel design
Lesson 18 Service accommodation
Lesson 19 Arrangement of different sections
Lesson 20 Service pipe line layout
Lesson 21 Equipment layout
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Lesson 22 Layout of offices and workshops
Lesson 23 Material handling
Lesson 24 Preparation of detail layout with model planning
Lesson 25 Common Problems
Module 5 Building construction materials and type of building construction
Lesson 26 Choice of building construction materials Brick sand cement lime etc
Lesson 27 Building materials stones wood metal glass etc
Lesson 28 General requirement of dairy floors and floors for different sections
Lesson29 Structural Aspects of Foundations Roofs Ceilings Walls Doors and windows
Lesson 30 Drain and drain layout for small and large dairies
Lesson 31 Ventilation Illumination and fly control
Lesson 32 Paints coatings and mold prevention
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Module 1 Introduction of Dairy Plant Design and Layou t
Types of Dairies and Peris hable nature of milk
1 1 Introduction
Since India is the leading country in milk production in the world at a fast rate it has been lead to a need of very
scientific layout and planning for the dairies being set up by the dairy designers engineers and architects In
some organized sectors milk collection and chilling of milk is done before it is transported for processing at
dairy factory The dairy technology commences with processing of milk at dairy plant for market milk and
various dairy products The dairy plant layout and design means designing a layout plan for dairy plant i e
layout of various sections in dairy building equipment layout laying of dairy machines in each section for
economical and efficient movement of men and material in the plant
Milk and milk products however impose certain requirements which do not occur elsewhere in food or other
industries These special requirements affect the structure and the layout of the building the provision and
distribution of services and the choice of site The products of dairy industry milk for liquid consumption
yoghurt curd cream butter ghee and similar products cheese milk powder and so on are foods which play a
fundamental part in human nutrition Materials and methods used in building must be such as to give the longest
practical life with the minimum of maintenance in spite of working conditions which are often relatively severe
from both the mechanical and chemical point of view It should also be seen that most of the repairs alterations
or extensions could be done without stopping the production These characteristics demand closest attention
during planning
There is a need for highest standard of hygiene Milk is most suitable medium for the growth of microorganism
therefore every possible measure should be taken to reduce the possibility of contamination especially after
processing A good layout design and use of proper materials and techniques make great contribution towards
hygiene The dairy layout needs careful thought and planning keeping in view manufacture of the products and
their commercial aspects
1 3 Peris hable nature of milk
Milk by its nature is perishable The following three factors contribute to its being perishable
i Contamination with bacteria due to widely dispersed and unhygienic collection methods
ii Warm temperatures of tropical climate
iii Prolonged time before cooling or processing
In practice none of these factors can be eliminated completely so if any one is accentuated the life of milk will
decrease Therefore every effort must be made to minimise these factors on the farm during collection at milk
plant and during distribution to consumers At the farm the aim must be to cool milk as soon as possible after
milking Ideally the milk should be chilled to 4 C within two hours after milking If for any reason this can not
be done at farm quick transport of milk to the plant is essential If milk can be stored conveniently at the farm
or local collecting depot at low temperature the organization of transport to milk processing plant is simplified
to greater extent by transporting bulk quantity in insulated tankers The type size and number of vehicles
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 5
necessary are therefore determined not only by the usual factors such as distance or nature of roads but also by
the condition of milk production
When the milk is drawn from the udder of the milch animals cows buffaloes goat sheep etc the quality of
milk is almost sterile The milk has its own anti microbial system present which is active till 2 to 3 hours of
milking The components in milk such as lacto peroxidase system immunoglobulins lactoferrin etc have the
anti microbial effect The perishable nature of milk comes into picture with the contamination from air huma n
and milking utensils The temperature of milk during milking is equal to body temperature i e 37 C The milk
being very rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates fats proteins minerals vitamins and water becomes good
media for the growth of micro organisms So the milk should be immediately sent to the dairies within 2 or 3
hours of milking before it gets sour If the dairy is very far away from the milk collection area it should be
chilled to below 10 C in the bulk milk coolers at the farm level village co operatives and or chilling centres so
that the microbial activity is inactivated
1 2 Types of Dairies
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Importance of Dairy Plant Design
2 1 Introduction
Dairy Plant design involves the estimation of capacity process scheduling and proper layout so as to achieve
the objective of handling milk at the least cost and greatest safety However the dairy industry and the plant
design has to meet certain special requirements and need to be focused on these The following are the few
aspects that make the dairy industry as a unique one
Special Characteristics of Dairy Industry
1 Perishable nature of milk Milk is one of the most perishable of the agricultural commodities and has
only few hours of shelf life unless it is chilled and processed Hence the TIME factor is the most
important aspect to be involved in the dairy plant design and la y out
2 Milk is an essential commodity It provides nutrition especially to children and aged Hence the dairy
industry has a high profile in the society and its functioning is very essential to the well being of the
3 Seasonal nature The dairy industry has to deal with availability of raw milk fluctuations depending on
the season It is available in certain months called Flush season when most of the calving and green
fodder is available During summer months when milk availability dips due to most of the animals
coming to end of their lactation period Hence OVER CAPACITY is the factor to be considered in plant
design and layout as the plant is to meet the peak procurement of the flush season while in the
remaining months it is having excess capacity Also flexibility of the plant design and layout has to be
considered
4 Milk is a food item which has to be consumed especially by children and old people Hence PLANT
HYGIENE is the important factor in plant layout and design
5 Effluent disposal of dairy plant is essential as the volume and BOD value of the dairy effluent is high
Sufficient planning is required to handle this high volume of effluent to be handled by Effluent
Treatment Plant ETP
6 Dairy Industry has to meet the various legal aspec ts and mandatory requirements It has to meet the
Industrial act Labor act Boiler act Pollution control act It also has to meet the HACCP and FSSAI
guidelines
2 2 Importance and economics of plant design
The products of dairy industry i e liquid milk yoghurt curds dahi cream butter ghee ice creams cheese
milk powders shrikhand traditional Indian dairy products etc are foods which are very important for human
nutrition Therefore it is very necessary that the milk and milk products should be available to everyone at the
lowest possible rate Also the profit margin that the dairy entrepreneur expects is limited Therefore the capital
outlay of the building and plant should be economical Planning must be done wisely to make best use of the
labor employed and to keep operating costs to a minimum Materials and method used in building must be such
as to give the longest practical life with the minimum maintenance in spite of working conditions which are
often relatively severe from both mechanical and chemical points of view It should also be without stopping the
production
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 7
To extend the shelf life some techniques like quick heating quick cooling acidification etc are applied and
also various advanced packaging techniques are used The Dairy Technology starts with milk processing till the
final products such as market milk and conversion into various products So the subject Dairy Plant Design and
Layout is the designing of layout plan for a dairy plant i e layout for different sections in the dairy building
equipment layout laying of dairy machines in such a manner that it allows efficient and economical movement
of men and material in the plant in each section The subject contains several applications of fundamental
topics such as locations site selection building materials specific requirements of each section including
service sections
2 3 Legal and comme rcial aspects of plant design
Care should be taken to provide adequate natural and artificial lighting Every possible effort should be made to
ensure that the building and the site will be pleasant to look at The architect can provide a good landscape and
an attractive outlook The welfare of the employees must be kept in view Canteen facilities are essential to
meet the requirement of Labor act Ultimately the dairy plant layout requires careful thought and planning
keeping in view manufacture of the products and their commercial aspects A sound layout engineering contains
allowance for increase in capacity by arranging the production departments and selecting the type of building
that can be expanded at low cost It should be easy to increase the output capacity which may be required in the
future A floor arrangement that contributes to the low cost production planning a nd control are achieved in
good plant layout Material control and steady amount of production capacity can be easily attained with
minimum idleness of machinery and man Finally leading to the delivery of products in short notices can be
Safety and good working conditions are very necessary in a proper plant layout Minimized hazards at the
working stations in material handling storage maintenance operations and so on are features of good plant
layout Minimum man hour losses reduction in cap ital equipment and material losses incorporate improved
working conditions Increased employee moral tends to reduce production costs and helps develop a stable
operating force
In planning the building several important factors have to be studied in deta il before the plant could be
developed to the stage of construction The size of the building and the floor space to be provided depend upon
the processes and choice of appropriate steps numbers and associated equipment to be accommodated and the
most important factor of rearrangement of facilities in the initially built building and provision for expansion of
the building without costly modifications A high degree of sanitation is necessary to ensure protection from
contamination odours chemicals organisms etc This includes the interior and exterior of the building and
sanitary conditions of the environment Simple pleasing design with high utility value without undue
importance to architectural factors is necessary
Civil Engineering aspects of plant design The type and methods of use of civil construction is evolving day by
day New materials are being developed to meet specific requirements of industries The planning of civil
construction is very much related now to meet the requirements of HACCP and FSSAI acts which are more
stringent in nature Structural modules of RCC Columns and beams gives good flexibility in the location of the
equipment and layout of service lines The height of the ceiling is another important factor Plain smooth
surface of the underside of the ceiling with embedded fixtures for lighting and pipe supports etc into the
ceiling is best
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2 4 Advantages of a good plant layout
1 A good layout reduces
a the effort in normal material handling of a worker
b cost of handling by direct labor and hence increased productivity per man hour and
c indirect manufacturing cost by decreasing spoilage under difficult handling situation
2 It uses only essential space required and eliminate congestion and accident permits flexib ility for methods
improvement and future expansion besides making supervision easier
3 It also facilitates scheduling and despatching operation
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Milk Procurement
3 1 Introduction
The wide range of milk procurement methods and handling has an affect on the plant design and layout The
method of milk procurement is also changing over the years The recent trend of Bulk Milk Cooling at village
clusters is altogether eliminating the procurement of milk by cans at the Dairy plants
Lack of attention during procurement processing and storage leads to decrease in the milk shelf life Quick
chilling of milk should be done during the procurement if the dairy is far away from the Dairy Processing Plant
and such milk is to be transported in bulk in insulated tankers to the dairies In India milk production is carried
out in rural areas from where it is transported to milk processing plant Thereafter distribution to consumers is
done through depots and or milk parlours
3 2 Milk procurement
In most of the countries milk production is carried out in rural areas from where it is transported to milk
processing plant Under Indian conditions milk has to be regularly collected and transported twice a day
morning and evening The usual methods of milk collection and reception at dairy plant are
i Milk procurement through individual producers In this milk is brought to the dairy plant by the individual
producers in their own vessels of any type This is possible for those producers who are located nearby milk
collection centre
ii Milk collected through co operative organizations Here co operative societies form an organization which
is responsible for uninterrupted supply of milk to the dairy plant Supply of milk can also be affected by single
co operative society formed by milk producers This is beneficial to the producers as there is no middle man to
share profit
iii Milk procured through contractors In this method the contrac tor supplying milk to the dairy plant collects
the milk from producers at a cheaper rate and transports the milk to the dairy Therefore there is less return to
the milk producers as milk contractor will keep his share in the profit
iv Milk reception from milk collection cum chilling centres This method is generally possible and is prevalent
in organized sectors and dairy operations in India
Milk is collected at various milk collection centres from nearby villages in 40 litre cans usually belonging to the
organization The milk is weighed tested for fat content and kept ready to be dispatched to the milk chilling
centre From collection centre milk is picked up in an open truck and brought to milk chilling centre or dairy
plant where milk cans are emptied washed through can washer and sent back to milk collection centres for
next day collection of milk
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3 3 Three tier structure of Anand Patte rn
The Anand pattern for collection of milk processing and marketing of milk and milk product is very popular for
co operative structure in Gujarat and few other states Fig 3 1 shows three tier system of Anand Pattern
i The Village Society
An Anand Pattern village dairy cooperative society DCS is formed by milk producers Any milk producer can
become a DCS member by buying a share and committing to sell milk only to the society Each DCS has a milk
collection centre where members supply milk every day Each member s milk is tested for quality with
payments based on the percentage of fat and SNF At the end of each year a portion of the DCS profits is used
to pay each member a patronage bonus based on the quantity of milk poured
ii The District Union
A District Cooperative Milk Producers Union is owned by dairy cooperative societies The Union buys all the
societies milk then processes and markets fluid milk and products Most Unions also provide a range of inputs
and services to DCSs and their members feed veterinary care artificial insemination to sustain the growth of
milk production and the cooperatives business Union staff train and provide consulting services to support
DCS leaders and staff
iii The State Federation
The cooperative milk producers unions in a state form a State Federation which is responsible for marketing the
fluid milk and products of member unions Some federations also manufacture feed and support other union
activities
The transportation of milk to milk collection centre by various methods has an important bearing on the quality
and time constraints placed on the milk procurement
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 11
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 12
Milk Reception
4 1 Introduction
The objective of handling the milk as quickly as possible continues even at the milk reception as the milk is
still vulnerable to the spoilage till it is chilled and taken into milk storage tank and processed The crucial stage
of milk reception also involves the responsibility of checking the quantity quality for acceptance and the time
management of handling many vehicles
As mentioned earlier the timing is an important parameter while decid ing about the mode of reception and
transport The load distance to be covered and relative merits are given below in Table 4 1 and 4 2
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4 2 Reception at the Dock
The milk as soon as it is received at plant is weighed dumped into the dump tank we igh tank and has to be
chilled before it is stored for processing This has to be done in quick succession through equipment well
planned and installed at milk reception dock and receiving room
The reception of milk at the Raw Milk Reception Dock RMRD is done in three ways i e in cans in milk
tankers and combination of both The type size and number of vehicles can be determined by factors such as
distance or nature of the roads and condition of milk production In the chilling centres or BMCs the milk is
received only in cans may be 40 lit or 20 lit capacity cans In case of Marketing Dairies the milk is received
only in milk tankers where as in feeder dairies the milk is received in both cans as well as in tankers The trend
of establishing BMCs at village clusters has changed the mode of reception and monitoring of quality and
quantity at Dairies
There are some products that depend on the type of milk like cow and buffalo milk Therefore the reception
dock may consists of two separate systems for cow milk reception and buffalo milk reception at chilling centres
as well as in feeder dairy plants In most of the dairy plants however the milk is received as mixed milk
If the milk is received in bulk through tankers the arrangement has to be made for quick transfer of milk
through milk pumps installed at milk reception dock to milk storage tanks The milk received in the evening
may be chilled and the stored for processing next day All this will need careful planning of layout of equipment
at milk reception dock and milk receiving room Roads leading to milk reception dock and dispatch dock have
to be planned in such a manner so as to avoid traffic congestion inside the factory or road blockage
4 2 1 Essential features of RMRD
The RMRD dock should be of height suitable usually 1 5 m to receive milk from whatever mode of transport
without spillage during unloading For Milk tankers the Tanker Bay must be spacious suitable for washing and
unloading at least two tankers at a time The pump should be of 20 000 l h capacity to unload faster If the milk
quantity is to be measured by weigh bridge it should be properly calibrated and inspected periodically by local
weights and measure authorities If the quantity is to be measured by dip stick alone then the tanker by must be
suitably leveled to avoid errors in measurement
4 3 The important equipme nts for reception of milk processing plant on the RMRD are
Can conveyor It should be of suitable type and length to transport easily the cans from the edge of the dock to
the can tilting bar at the dump tank The rate of reception and capacity of the dairy plant are also important in
deciding about the type of can conveyor like whether a Roller type or motorized chain conveyor
Milk weighing tank The equipment involves a weigh bowl and dump tank The capacity of weigh bowl
should be able to weigh at least 4 cans which may be an average quantity received from each village Weigh
bowl may be linked to indicate on a dial type of scale or through load cells in digital form of indication and
Weighing scale The weigh scale must at least be of 300 kg so that the normal range of quantity of milk
received from village is between 40 to 60 of the scale The trend of digital indication through load cells are
catching up which has the advantage of recording as well as print out simultaneously for easy monitoring and
documentation This is improving the confidence level between milk collection centres and dairy that is
receiving the milk
Dump tank with cover The capacity of Dump tank is at least twice the capacity of weigh bowl so that while
the milk quantity of one village is being weighed the other quantity is being pumped out from dump tank to the
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 14
milk chiller Recent trend is to link the level sensors and milk pump to get started and stopped when the milk
level is high and low respectively
Drip saver The drip saver must be of SS and should have drain leading to the dump tank or to a separate can
which is emptied to dump tank from time to time
Can washer The capacity of can washer should meet the rate of reception and dumping Mostly Straight
through can washers are chosen and the empty can conveyor leads the washed cans to the dock or to the edge
of RMRD to be loaded into vehicles
Milk pump The milk pump used for pumping milk from dump tank to the plate chiller through in line filter
should match the rate of reception It is installed at a level lower than the dump tank and has flow control valve
at the discharge side The filter is sometimes located on the suction side to avoid threads tags etc connected
with cans getting jammed into the pump impeller The pump in recent times is linked with control system to
operate as per the level in the dump tank to prevent overflo w of dump tank or pump running dry by oversight
of the operator
Plate chiller The Plate chiller is usually of PHE type and used for chilling milk to 4 o C The Plate chiller is
sized to meet the reception rate and may sometimes be two in number one eac h to receive milk by cans or road
tankers If the chiller is to receive milk from road tankers the capacity is usually much larger to meet the
higher rate of reception to unload tanker rapidly
Raw milk silo This is a vertical storage tank or a battery of storage tanks that are specifically identified to
store raw milk only The silos can be located outside the processing hall but connected to the hall through an
opening called Alcove The operation of opening closing of inlet and outlet valves measuring the
temperature controlling the agitator etc are done from inside of the processing hall itself though the silo is
located outside The tank overflow line will be positioned to inside of hall so that the operator can know if the
tank is full and overflowing
Milk testing laboratory This is a preliminary testing laboratory to perform so called Platform tests like COB
acidity turbidity etc
The Reception dock is essentially separated from the processing hall by partition doors or walls w ith fly proof
devices like air curtains or mesh doors The trend now is to provide even the RMRD dock with provisions to
prevent entry of flies and insects
The crucial design calculations of the rate of dumping is illustrated by following example
1 Milk to be received by Dairy Plant 10 000 LPD
2 Milk to be received by AM and PM in the ratio of 60 40
3 Milk to be received in the AM 10 000 x 0 60 6 000 lts
4 Milk to be received in two hours
5 Milk reception per hour 6 000 2 3000 LPH
Hence the design of all the reception dock equipment will be to meet the above requirement of 3 000 LPH
Dairy Plant Design and Layout www AgriMoon Com 15


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