Ergonomic Hazards In General Industry-PDF Free Download

Ergonomic Hazards in General Industry

2020 | 10 views | 31 Pages | 662.42 KB

Ergonomic hazards can cause painful and disabling injuries to joints and muscles in some general industry jobs, especially manual material handling. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), ergonomic hazards are the most frequently occurring health hazards in all industries and the cause of most injuries.



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OSHAcademy Course 153 Study Guide
Ergonomic Hazards in General Industry
Copyright 2018 Geigle Safety Group Inc
No portion of this text may be reprinted for other than personal use Any commercial use of
this document is strictly forbidden
Contact OSHAcademy to arrange for use as a training document
This study guide is designed to be reviewed off line as a tool for preparation to successfully
complete OSHAcademy Course 153
Read each module answer the quiz questions and submit the quiz questions online through
the course webpage You can print the post quiz response screen which will contain the correct
answers to the questions
The final exam will consist of questions developed from the course content and module quizzes
We hope you enjoy the course and if you have any questions feel free to email or call
OSHAcademy
15220 NW Greenbrier Parkway Suite 230
Beaverton Oregon 97006
www oshatrain org
instructor oshatrain org
1 888 668 9079
Disclaimer
This document does not constitute legal advice Consult with your own company counsel for advice on compliance with all applicable state and
federal regulations Neither Geigle Safety Group Inc nor any of its employees subcontractors consultants committees or other assignees
make any warranty or representation either express or implied with respect to the accuracy completeness or usefulness of the information
contained herein or assume any liability or responsibility for any use or the results of such use of any information or process disclosed in this
publication GEIGLE SAFETY GROUP INC DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE Taking actions suggested in this document does not guarantee
that an employer employee operator or contractor will be in compliance with applicable regulations Ultimately every company is responsible
for determining the applicability of the information in this document to its own operations Each employer s safety management system will be
different Mapping safety and environmental management policies procedures or operations using this document does not guarantee
compliance regulatory requirements
Revised February 6 2019
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Course 153
Modules and Learning Objectives 1
Course Introduction 2
The High Costs of MSDs 2
Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards 3
What is Ergonomics 3
Risk Factors Inherent in the Worker 4
Risk Factors Inherent in the Task 5
Risk Factors Inherent in the Environment 8
Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders MSDs 9
MSD Injuries and Disorders 10
Lower Back 10
Shoulder 11
Arms Hands and Wrists 11
Module 2 Controlling Ergonomic Hazards 13
Engineering Controls 14
Engineering Control Improvement Options 15
Material Handling 15
Storage and Retrieval of Materials 16
Tools and Equipment Selection 16
Handles 17
Triggers 17
Course 153
Fixtures 17
Vibration Hazards 18
Administrative Controls 18
Good Housekeeping 19
Maintenance 20
Exercise and Stretching 20
Cooperation 20
Safe Lifting Techniques 20
Personal Protective Equipment 22
Back Belts 23
Prioritize Your Work 23
Additional Resources 25
Course 153
Modules and Learning Objectives
Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards
Learning objectives in this module include
Define ergonomics and the risks inherent with the worker task and environment
Discuss risk factors in the worker including age gender physical activity strength and
anthropometry scientific study of the measurements proportions of the human
Discuss risk factors in the task including force vibration repetition recovery time
duration twisting and posture
Discuss risk factors in the environment including illumination sound temperature and
psychosocial
Define and give examples of work related musculoskeletal disorders MDSs
Module 2 Controlling Ergonomic Hazards
Learning objectives in this module include
Describe the Hierarchy of Controls and how it relates to ergonomics improvement
Define and give examples of ergonomics engineering controls
Define and give examples of ergonomics administrative controls
Define and give examples of ergonomics personal protective equipment
Describe safe lifting techniques
Describe the steps in prioritizing making ergonomic improvements
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Course 153
Course Introduction
There are many types of musculoskeletal disorders MSDs including back pain carpal tunnel
syndrome tendinitis rotator cuff syndrome sprains and strains These illnesses and injuries
affect one or more parts of the musculoskeletal system They include sprains strains
inflammation degeneration tears pinched nerves or blood vessels bone splintering and stress
fractures Symptoms include discomfort pain fatigue swelling stiffness or numbness and
The High Costs of MSDs
MSDs account for 34 percent of all lost workday injuries and illnesses
Employers report nearly 600 000 MSDs requiring time away from work every year
MSDs account for 1 of every 3 spent for workers compensation
MSDs each year account for more than 15 billion to 20 billion in workers
compensation costs Total direct costs add up to as much as 50 billion annually
On average it takes workers 28 days to recover from carpal tunnel syndrome longer
than the time needed to recover from amputation or fractures
Workers with severe injuries can face permanent disability that prevents them from
returning to their jobs or handling simple everyday tasks
In this course we ll look at practical ideas to help reduce the risk of repetitive stress injury in
common general industry tasks like manual material handling
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Course 153
Module 1 Identifying Ergonomic Hazards
What is Ergonomics
Ergonomics means finding ways to work easier and just as productive The goal of the science of
ergonomics is to find a best fit between the worker and job conditions Ergonomics tries to
come up with solutions to make sure workers stay safe comfortable and productive
Ergonomics also means working smarter not harder It looks at the following risk factor
categories to see how the job can best fit the worker
Risk factors inherent in the worker Physical psychological and non work related
activities may present unique risk factors
Risk factors inherent in the task Work procedures equipment and workstation design
may introduce risk factors
Risk factors inherent in the environment Physical and psychosocial climate may
introduce risk factors
Ergonomic hazards can cause painful and disabling injuries to joints and muscles in some
general industry jobs especially manual material handling According to the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration OSHA ergonomic hazards are the most frequently occurring
health hazards in all industries and the cause of most injuries
In a recent survey 40 percent of construction workers said working hurt is a major problem
Working hurt reduces productivity but continuing to work hurt can result in disabling injuries
that end a career Many laborers retire by age 55 because they just can t do the work anymore
Many can t enjoy their retirement because of their disabilities
Quiz Instructions
After each section there is a quiz question Make sure to read the material in each section to
discover the correct answer to these questions Circle the correct answer When you are
finished go online to take the final exam This exam is open book so you can use this study
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Course 153
1 Which of the following is NOT one of the general risk factor categories
a Factors inherent in the worker
b Factors inherent in the regulations
c Factors inherent in the task
d Factors inherent in the environment
Risk Factors Inherent in the Worker
Each worker s ability to respond to external demands of a task is different and unique Studies
show that stereotyping or making general assumptions about an employee s ability based on
any one of the factors listed below is not correct The studies described below emphasize the
fact that you can t group workers into general categories Everyone is unique and work needs
to be designed to match each employee s unique abilities The only way to really know what
employees are capable of doing is to interview and evaluate them based on the inherent
factors listed below
Age By the age of 35 most people have had their first episode of back pain The prevalence of
ergonomic injuries increases as people enter their working years Musculoskeletal impairments
are among the most prevalent and symptomatic health problems of middle and old age
However remember don t assume all middle and old age workers have the same health
Gender Whether the gender difference seen in some studies of various MSDs is due to
physiological differences or differences in exposure is unclear One study concluded that the
lack of workplace accommodation to the range of workers height and reach may in part
account for the apparent gender differences Again base your determinations on what the
worker is capable of doing not what gender they are
Physical activity Some physical activity may cause injury However the lack of physical activity
may increase susceptibility to injury We can define fitness as combinations of strength
endurance flexibility musculoskeletal timing and coordination There is clear evidence that
stretching exercises do have a positive effect on the reduction of Musculoskeletal Disorders
MSDs We ll discuss MSDs in more detail in section 7
Strength A worker s strength is important but not necessarily the key Heavy work stresses
the heart and lungs which may result in rapid fatigue general or localized The probability of
injury increases as muscles weaken Consequently demanding repetitive or static muscular
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work requires energy not necessarily strength You may be strong but not have sufficient
energy to do the task
Anthropometry Designing for only the average person causes problems for everyone else
Anthropometry is the science of studying the difference in body size and proportions by
measuring various body characteristics including weight physical range of mobility and body
dimensions This information is then used by designers to engineer tools equipment furniture
and workstations for maximum efficiency for each individual worker
The basic ergonomic strategy is to design work based on each worker s unique abilities and not
their membership in a general group Judgment should not be based solely on any one of the
above factors For instance don t assume that all old workers have the same abilities or
ergonomic issues It is important to design work based on the unique factors inherent in each
individual rather than designing work based on generalities
2 By what age do most people have their first episode of back pain
Risk Factors Inherent in the Task
In addition to considering the worker attributes that may increase the risk of injury we must
also analyze the risk factors the work task itself brings to the job We look at the task variables
in the workplace that may increase or decrease the risk of cumulative trauma disorders CTDs
depending on its design and location
In large measure work processes are determined by the factors below
Force Forcefulness is the amount of physical effort required by the person to do a task and or
maintain control of tools and equipment Examples of work activities that exert force on the
body include lifting lowering pushing pulling pinching pounding hitting and jumping
Vibration Duration of exposure to vibration plays a large role in the effects of vibration forces
There are two basic types of vibration that can result in MSDs
Segmental vibration Segmental Vibration affects a part or segment of the body such
as the hands and arms When handling vibrating tools such as a jack hammer for a
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prolonged duration vascular insufficiency in the hand and fingers can also result in
interference with sensory receptor feedback If a worker can t feel the grip properly
he or she may compensate by applying more force than is necessary to hold and handle
an object Segmental vibration has also been linked to carpal tunnel syndrome
Whole body vibration When the whole body is subjected to vibration most commonly
experienced by truck drivers there is an enhanced risk of injury especially to the lower
3 Which disorder had been linked to segmental vibration
a Carpal tunnel syndrome
b Low back injury
c Neck injuries
d Benoid s syndrome
Repetition Repetition is a measure of how frequently we complete the same motion or
exertion during a task Managers and office workers can suffer from repetitive motion injuries
especially at the wrist from using a mouse and continual typing The severity of repetitive
motion injuries depends on
the frequency of repetition
speed of the movement or action
the number of muscle groups involved and
the required force during movement
Food processors repeatedly handling products while working on conveyor lines suffer from
repetitive motion issues The more the joint departs from the neutral position the greater the
likelihood of injury
Recovery time Recovery time is a measure of the rest or low stress activity period available to
the muscle group between similar exertions Recovery time is important in preventing muscle
fatigue because oxygen and metabolites are allowed to rejuvenate while uric acid and other
waste products are removed from the muscle group Recovery time needed will lengthen as the
duration of the task increases
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Duration Duration is a measure of length of time of exposure to a risk factor Of course the
assumption is that the longer the duration of exposure the greater the risk of injury Duration
may be measured in seconds minutes hours days weeks months and even years Food
processors handling products while working on conveyor lines may suffer from injuries due to
the duration long hours of work
As with most individual risk factors duration must be considered along with other people task
and environmental risk factors such as the physical conditioning of the worker posture force
weight temperature stress etc
4 Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing the risk from repetition during a
a Frequency
b Speed of movement
c Force required during movement
d The length of the muscle group
Twisting Twisting in the middle of a lift greatly amplifies the forces on the lower back The
point at which twisting is most likely to cause an injury when lifting objects is in the middle of
the lift Material handling and brickwork are good examples of tasks that require twisting
Posture Posture is the position of the body while performing work activities Awkward posture
is a deviation from the ideal working posture of arms at the side of the torso elbows bent with
the wrists straight Awkward postures typically include reaching behind twisting working
overhead kneeling forward or backward bending and squatting If the posture is awkward
during work there is an increased risk for injury
Listed below are some specific postures and examples of tasks that may be associated with
increased risk of injury
Extending or flexing the wrist up and down regularly is associated with a greater risk of
carpal tunnel syndrome Examples Painting and playing the drums
Bending the hand toward the little finger regularly greater than 20 degrees increases the
risk of pain and other issues Examples Lifting boxes and working with heavy tools like
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Raising the arms which flexes the shoulders greater than 60 degrees for more than one
hour a day increases the risk of acute neck and shoulder pain Example Lifting objects
over the head
Hands working at or above shoulder level can result in increased risk of tendinitis and
various shoulder problems Example Cleaning the top surfaces on machinery
The greater the angle of the neck moves forward backward or side to side the more
quickly neck and shoulder pain results Example Sports holding phone with shoulder
Bending at the lower back while working increases the likelihood of low back disorders
Examples Laying carpet and cleaning furniture
5 When does twisting greatly amplify the forces on the lower back during a lift
a During the start of the lift
b During the middle of the lift
c At the end of the lift
d At all points of the lift
Risk Factors Inherent in the Environment
Environmental risk factors refer to the physical and psychosocial climate in the workplace
These include
Illumination Inadequate light can increase the number of attempts in completing a
Sound Sound can be an irritant causing increased stress
Humidity Humidity has an impact on worker endurance which affects the duration with
which work can be conducted safely
Temperature Be it too hot or too cold in combination with any one of the above risk
factors may also increase the potential for MSDs to develop
Psychosocial Psychosocial work demands in terms of job control psychological
demands social support and job dissatisfaction all can influence the rate at which
employees are injured If your employer forces employees to work fast not safe the
likelihood of MSDs increases
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6 How can the psychosocial environment influence ergonomic hazards
a MSDs increase when employees are happy
b It can cause poor attitudes and low morale
c It causes employees to work in cold environments
d Demands to work fast can increase MSDs
Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders MSDs
MSDs occur when the physical capabilities of the worker do not match the physical
requirements of the job They are caused by job activities and conditions like lifting heavy
objects repetitive motions and work in confined areas
MSDs are injuries and disorders of the soft tissues muscles tendons ligaments joints
and cartilage and nervous system
They can affect nearly all tissues including the nerves and tendon sheaths and most
frequently involve the arms and back
MSDs are the leading cause of disability for people in their working years
Complaints about back knee and shoulder upper arm are common among general
industry workers performing manual material handling
Studies indicate upper limb and shoulder MSDs were related to manual handling work
repetitiveness psychosocial demands job dissatisfaction gender and physical unfitness
Workers have an increased risk of these injuries in the following instances
when carrying heavy loads
twisting hands or wrist
stretching to work overhead
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