Gen Bio 1 Lab 7 Cell Respiration Amp Photosynthesis-PDF Free Download

Gen Bio 1 Lab 7 Cell Respiration amp Photosynthesis

2020 | 10 views | 12 Pages | 520.83 KB

Cell Respiration & Photosynthesis PRE-LAB: Do all of the Pre-lab Vocabulary, Pre-Lab Reading, and Pre-lab Activities on pages 1-5 before coming to lab. CELL RESPIRATION PRELAB VOCABULARY: 1. Chemical reduction- 2. Chemical oxidation- 3. Glycolysis- 4. Formation of Acetyl CoA- 5. Krebs cycle (Citric Acid cycle)- 6. Electron Transport Chain- 7 ...



In aerobes organisms that require oxygen to survive pyruvate is oxidized to an acetyl group and fed
into the Krebs cycle where the remainder of the glucose molecule is broken down These reactions
produce 2 more ATP molecules 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 The NADH and FADH2 then release the
electron and H into the electron transport chain where their energy is harvested and used to produce a
large amount of ATP The by products include CO2 and H2O
Some organisms are anaerobes cannot survive in and oxygen rich environment and are only capable of
glycolysis In order to continue to produce ATP they must remove the electrons and H from NADH
and convert pyruvate to another molecule The process used is called fermentation In yeast and some
bacteria fermentation of pyruvate produces ethanol and CO2 This process is used to make bread rise
and to produce alcoholic beverages etc In other bacteria and in animal cells the pyruvate is converted
to lactic acid Both pathways regenerate NAD so that glycolysis can continue
CELL RESPIRATION PRE LAB ACTIVITY
Write the sequence of reactions for glycolysis beginning with glucose and ending with 2 pyruvates
see pp 168 169 enzyme names not required
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS PRE LAB VOCABULARY
1 Photosynthesis
2 Chloroplast
4 Chlorophyll
5 Light Dependent Reactions
6 Light Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle
7 Spectrophotometer
PHOTOSYNTHESIS PRE LAB READING Figures 10 8 10 12 10 13 10 14 and 10 19 in text
Photosynthesis is the process used by plants to convert our waste product CO2 and water into sugars
To do this they capture light energy from the sun and convert it into ATP and reducing power
energized electrons and their H carried by NADP This step also produces O2 as a waste product The
reactions are collectively called the light dependent reactions The ATP and NADPH are then used to
reduce CO2 to form glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate G3P which is ultimately used to produce glucose
The series of reactions that produce G3P are collectively called the light independent reactions or the
Calvin Cycle
Identification of photosynthetic pigments Chlorophyll a and b plus other pigments the xanthophylls
and carotenes capture light energy from the sun and convert it to ATP Each pigment absorbs certain
wavelengths of light and reflects the rest What we see is the reflected light which will have a certain
color In this lab you are going to determine the wavelengths of light that spinach leaf pigments absorb
and in the process identify the different pigments in spinach leaves An extract of pigments will be
made by blending spinach leaves with acetone
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS PRE LAB ACTIVITY
Label the two following figures from your Campbell textbook see Figure refs on pg 3
Light Dependent reactions
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Light Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle or the Dark Reactions
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Cell Respiration Procedure 1 Effect of CO2 on the pH indicator phenol red
1 Obtain a cup with phenol red solution and a straw
2 Blow through the straw until you see a color change in the phenol red
Note phenol red is a pH indicator that turns from red to yellow as the solution becomes acid
What color did it change to
What gases do you exhale
So why did this happen Well
When CO2 combines with water the following reaction takes place
CO2 H2O H2CO3 carbonic acid H HCO3 H makes the solution acidic
Blood buffer system
Cell Respiration Procedure 2 Fermentation grape juice
Examine the Erlenmeyer flask with grape juice and yeast suspension
Why are there bubbles in only 1 of the flasks
How do the bubbles help us explain what has happened to the phenol red solution
Cell Respiration Procedure 3 Using Tetrazolium Chloride to see Evidence of Electron Transport
The chemical Tetrazolium chloride has long been used to determine if a seed embryo is alive and
therefore respiring
The oxidation reduction reactions occurring in the electron transport system in the mitochondria
can be detected using dyes that change color when reduced One such dye is tetrazolium 2 3 5
triphenyl tetrazolium chloride Cytochromes will transfer electrons to tetrazolium in the electron
transport system as well as to oxygen
Oxidized tetrazolium is colorless Reduced tetrazolium is bright pink to red in color If the
electron transport system is functioning in viable mitochondria a tetrazolium solution will turn
pink or red
You will test viability in corn by checking to see if the electron transport systems in their
mitochondria are doing cell respiration
You will be using two different types of seeds corn seeds and beans One group of each type has
been boiled to kill the seeds The other group has been soaked for 24 hours to initiate the
germination process
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Plastic petri plate
Razor blade
1 boiled bean
1 normal bean
4 drops of Tetrazolium chloride Your instructor will have 0 1 tetrazolium chloride prepared in PBS
Cell Respiration Procedure 3 Electron Transport Chain
1 On your plastic petri plate draw a line down the center
2 On one side of the line mark normal
3 On the other side mark boiled
4 Get one kernel of corn from each bag
5 Cut the kernel of corn using the razor blade Make sure to cut it in half into right and left halves
use the cutting image on the right as a guide
6 Place several drops of Tetrazolium chloride on each side of the petri plate
7 Using forceps place the corn cut side down into the drops
8 Repeat steps 1 7 for your beans note the cutting image on the right for bean is different
9 Let sit for 15 minutes
10 Pick up the petri plate and observe the underside of the
kernel and bean to see the staining results
CAUTION DO NOT ALLOW Tetrazolium chloride to splash on your skin
How does Tetrazolium chloride staining work
Which seeds have a pink stained embryo
What does the pink stain indicate is happening in the embryo
Germinating seeds have a higher rate of respiration than adult plants Why
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Photosynthesis Procedure 1 Using a spectrophotometer to measure absorbance of
light by spinach leaf pigments See Fig 10 9 in your textbook
1 Obtain 2 test tubes and add 10 ml of acetone to each tube
2 To one of these tubes add 10 drops of the pigment extract cover with parafilm and invert to mix This is your
spinach pigment extract dilution
3 Obtain 2 of the special tubes that are used in the spectrophotometer called cuvettes and pour the plain acetone
into one this is your blank you will use to zero the machine Pour your pigment extract dilution into the
other tube
4 Wipe all liquid fingerprints dust particles etc from the cuvettes with lens paper and when it is your turn read
the absorbance of your extract using the spectrophotometer
5 Check with your instructor to make sure that the spectrophotometer has been on for 15 minutes before use Set
the read out to Transmittance 100 T using the following labeled diagram
6 Set the first wavelength 380nm and set the filter control lever to 340 599nm reading left Adjust the
Transmittance reading to 0 using the Power Zero control Knob front left Switch the read out to Absorbance
7 Insert your Blank cuvette acetone and align the vertical line with the mark on the sample compartment
8 Adjust the reading to 0 using the Transmittance Absorbance knob front right
9 Remove the blank and insert your spinach pigment dilution
10 Record your results in Table 1
11 We are dividing up the absorbance readings by group Each group will be reading at 2 4 wavelengths
depending on the total lab size Your instructor will write a table up on the board or just tell you which
wavelengths are assigned to your group We will combine our data together to create a lab Table 1 which all of
you will use for graphing
12 Repeat steps 7 10 for each wavelength assigned to your group
When you measure absorbance at 600 nm and above flip the filter lever to the
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12 Graph your results using the graph paper provided and compare to the graph of common plant pigments to
determine which ones are present in spinach Label the x axis Wavelength nm and the y axis Absorbance
Make the long side of the paper the X axis and spread out your results Or to make it nice and snazzy use Excel
and create a graph Lab Instructors like nice and snazzy
TABLE 1 Absorbance vs Wavelength
Wavelength nm Absorbance
CHANGE FILTER FLIP LEVER TO RIGHT
You need to graph your results Refer to the chart at your table to
figure out which pigments you have If you have a hump where chlorophyll a is supposed to be
then you have chlorophyll a
Which pigments did you find in your extract
Why do spinach leaves appear green
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Photosynthesis Procedure 2 Determining amount of starch storage in variegated
coleus plant leaves using iodine staining
When leafy plants are making a large amount of glucose they store this glucose as starch in their
chloroplasts Other plants like potatoes store glucose as starch in specialized tuber structures in
amyloplasts The production of sugars requires photosynthesis and photosynthesis only occurs in the
presence of light Additionally photosynthesis requires chlorophyll a If this is not present in the leaf or
parts of the leaf there will be no starch storage You will test several leaves and determine starch
storage using iodine
What happens when you add iodine to starch
1 Obtain a leaf from the following
a Variegated coleus with purple and green leaves grown in the light
b Variegated coleus with purple and green leaves grown in the dark
2 Boil each leaf in water for 2 minutes This removes water soluble pigments
3 Boil each leaf in methanol for 5 minutes or until the color fades This removes the lipid soluble
BE CAREFUL WITH THE METHANOL BOIL AT LOWER TEMPERATURE AND DO
NOT ALLOW THE BEAKER TO BOIL DRY Save your used methanol
4 Transfer the leaves to a petri dish and cover each leaf with iodine
5 Draw the leaves showing the intensity of the iodine staining
6 Explain your results
TABLE 2 Starch determination in leaves
Leaf Intensity and Explanation
location of staining
Purple green coleus in light
Purple green coleus in dark
Leaf drawings
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Photosynthesis Procedure 3 Using your leftover methanol in its beaker with the lab lights out wait
for instructor to indicate when this occurs use a powerful flashlight to shine into the base of the beaker
Can you see colored areas or flashes What colors do you see This is due to fluorescence which
occurs when an energized electron falls back into it original electron shell The energy released is in the
form of heat and light fluorescence
Questions to e x p a n d your mind
1 Compare and contrast anaerobic and aerobic respiration Include an account of the number of ATP
molecules produced in each reaction
2 Describe the light dependent and light independent reactions of photosynthesis
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3 Discuss the role of pigments in photosynthesis And what are several products of photosynthesis that
are important to humans
Online search opportunity What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 how does it develop in humans
and what role do dietary starches and carbohydrates play in its development
Updated version 5 5 6 16 Page 12


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