Homeostasis Negative Feedback Loop-PDF Free Download

Homeostasis Negative Feedback Loop

2020 | 2 views | 6 Pages | 1.46 MB

Homeostasis Conformers vs. Regulators ... Negative Feedback Loop low hormone or nerve signal lowers body condition (return to set point) hormone or nerve signal gland or nervous system raises body condition (return to set point) gland or nervous system sensor specific body condition Controlling Body Temperature high low nerve signals sweat nerve signals brain body temperature shiver brain ...



Avenues of attack Why an immune system
Attack from outside
Points of entry lots of organisms want you for lunch
digestive system animals are a tasty nutrient vitamin packed meal
cells are packages of macromolecules
What s in your
respiratory system no cell wall
traded mobility for susceptibility
urogenital tract animals must defend themselves against invaders
break in skin HIV flu cold measles chicken pox SARS
Routes of attack bacteria
pneumonia meningitis tuberculosis
circulatory system fungi
yeast Athlete s foot
lymph system protists
amoeba Lyme disease malaria
Attack from inside
defend against abnormal body cells cancers
Production transport of leukocytes
Lymph system Traps foreign invaders Development of Red White blood cells
Red blood cells inflammatory
lymph vessels
intertwined amongst blood vessels
develop into short lived phagocytes
lymph node macrophages 60 70 WBC
Lines of defense 1st line External defense
1st line Barriers Physical chemical
broad external defense
walls moats defenses
skin mucus membranes non specific defense
2nd line Non specific patrol
broad internal defense external barrier
patrolling soldiers
epithelial cells mucus
leukocytes phagocytic WBC
macrophages membranes
3rd line Immune system skin
specific acquired immunity respiratory system
spies Bacteria insects
inherit resistance digestive system
lymphocytes antibodies Vertebrates
B cells T cells uro genital tract Lining of trachea
acquire immunity ciliated cells mucus
secreting cells
1st line Chemical barriers on
2nd line Internal broad range patrol
epithelium
Skin mucous membrane secretions leukocytes
Innate general defense
pH 3 5 rapid response
washing action Patrolling cells proteins
traps microbes
attack invaders that penetrate
saliva body s outer
anti bacterial lick your wounds barriers
stomach acid
pH 2 leukocytes
anti microbial proteins phagocytic white blood cells
lysozyme enzyme complement system
digests bacterial cell walls
anti microbial proteins
inflammatory response
Leukocytes Phagocytic WBCs Phagocytes
Attracted by chemical
signals released by damaged cells
enter infected tissue engulf ingest microbes
Neutrophils
most abundant WBC 70
3 day lifespan
Macrophages
big eater long lived
Natural Killer Cells
destroy virus infected cells macrophage yeast
cancer cells
Destroying cells gone bad Inflammatory response
Natural Killer Cells perforate cells Damage to tissue triggers
release perforin protein local non specific
inflammatory response
insert into membrane of target cell release histamines
forms pore allowing fluid to prostaglandins
flow into cell natural killer cell vesicle capillaries dilate
more permeable leaky
cell ruptures lysis increase blood supply
apoptosis perforin delivers WBC RBC platelets
cell clotting factors
fight pathogens
clot formation
perforin cell
membrane accounts for swelling redness
punctures heat of inflammation infection
cell membrane virus infected cell
Inflammatory response Fever
Reaction to tissue damage When a local response is not enough
Pin or splinter
Blood clot systemic response to infection
activated macrophages release interleukin 1
Bacteria triggers hypothalamus in brain to readjust body thermostat to raise
body temperature
Chemical higher temperature helps defense
alarm signals inhibits bacterial growth
stimulates phagocytosis
Phagocytes speeds up repair of tissues
causes liver spleen to store
iron reducing blood iron levels
bacteria need large amounts
of iron to grow
Blood vessel
3rd line Acquired active Immunity How are invaders recognized Antigens
Specific defense Antigens
lymphocytes proteins that serve as cellular name tags
foreign antigens cause response from WBCs
B lymphocytes B cells viruses bacteria protozoa parasitic worms fungi toxins
T lymphocytes T cells non pathogens pollen transplanted tissue
antibodies B cells T cells respond to different antigens
immunoglobulins B cells recognize intact antigens
pathogens in blood lymph
Responds to
T cells recognize antigen fragments
antigens pathogens which have already infected cells
specific pathogens
specific toxins
abnormal body cells
cancer self foreign
B cells Antibodies
Humoral response in fluid Proteins that bind to a specific antigen Y
defense against attackers circulating multi chain proteins produced by B cells
freely in blood lymph binding region matches molecular shape of antigens
Specific response each antibody is unique specific Y
millions of antibodies respond to millions of foreign antigens
produce specific antibodies
tagging handcuffs
against specific antigen this is foreign gotcha antigen antigen
Types of B cells binding site on
plasma cells
immediate production of antibodies variable
rapid response short term release binding region Y
memory cells
long term immunity
each B cell
has 100 000
antigen receptors
Structure of antibodies Y
How antibodies work
antigen binding site
s s variable region
chain s s chain
s s light chains
s s chains
invading pathogens
tagged with antibodies
B cell antigen binding antigen binding
membrane site site
macrophage
heavy chains eating tagged invaders
10 to 17 days for full response
B cell immune response
Y Y Vaccinations
Y Immune system exposed
to harmless version of pathogen
invader in blood lymph Y
stimulates B cell system to produce
foreign antigen
B cells antibodies
memory cells
Y antibodies to pathogen
active immunity
captured recognition rapid response on future exposure
invaders Y
creates immunity
Y Y Y without getting
macrophage Y
Most successful
Y Y YY Y Y
against viruses
plasma cells 1000s of clone cells
release antibodies
What if the attacker gets past the B
cells in the blood actually infects Cell mediated response
some of your cells immune response to infected cells
viruses bacteria parasites pathogens within
You need trained assassins to kill cells
off these infected cells defense against non self cells
cancer transplant cells
Types of T cells
Attack helper T cells
of the alerts immune system
Killer T cells killer cytotoxic T cells
attack infected body cells
How are cells tagged with antigens How do T cells know a cell is infected
Major histocompatibility MHC proteins Infected cells digest pathogens MHC
antigen glycoproteins proteins bind carry pieces to cell surface
MHC proteins constantly carry bits of cellular material antigen presenting cells APC
from the cytosol to the cell surface
alerts Helper T cells
snapshot of what is going on inside cell
give the surface of cells a unique label or fingerprint infected MHC proteins displaying
cell foreign antigens
T cell T cell
MHC proteins T cell
displaying self antigens antigen receptors
T cell response Attack of the Killer T cells
infected cell
recognition T cell Destroys infected body cells
helper binds to target cell
killer T cells secretes perforin protein
interleukin 1 helper punctures cell membrane of infected cell vesicle
T cell stimulate Killer T cell
Killer T cell
B cells binds to
APC antibodies
activated T cell infected cell
macrophage Y
clones cell
helper perforin
Y Y Y punctures cell
cell membrane membrane
recognition Y
infected cell target cell


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