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Learning Unethical Practices from a Co Worker The Peer

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Learning Unethical Practices from a Co-worker: The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco* This paper examines the issue of whether workers learn productive skills from their co-workers, even if those skills are unethical. Specifically, we estimate whether Jose Canseco, one of the best baseball players in the last few decades, affected the performance of his

Learning Unethical Practices
from a Co worker
The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco
Eric D Gould
Hebrew University Shalem Center
Todd R Kaplan
Haifa University
and University of Exeter
Discussion Paper No 3328
January 2008
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IZA Discussion Paper No 3328
January 2008
Learning Unethical Practices from a Co worker
The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco
This paper examines the issue of whether workers learn productive skills from their co
workers even if those skills are unethical Specifically we estimate whether Jose Canseco
one of the best baseball players in the last few decades affected the performance of his
teammates In his autobiography Canseco claims that he improved the productivity of his
teammates by introducing them to steroids Using panel data on baseball players we show
that a player s performance increases significantly after they played with Jose Canseco After
checking 30 comparable players from the same era we find that no other baseball player
produced a similar effect Clearly Jose Canseco had an unusual influence on the productivity
of his peers These results are consistent with Canseco s controversial claims and suggest
that workers not only learn productive skills from their co workers but sometimes those skills
may derive from unethical practices These findings may be relevant to many workplaces
where competitive pressures create incentives to adopt unethical means to boost productivity
and profits
JEL Classification J24
Keywords peer effects corruption crime externalities
Corresponding author
Eric D Gould
Department of Economics
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Mount Scopus
Jerusalem 91905
E mail eric gould huji ac il
We thank Guy Stecklov for helpful comments
1 Introduction
There is a growing literature that stresses the importance of the environment in determining
the outcomes of individuals Most of this literature is concerned with examining how peers
and environmental factors a ect youth behavior regarding their educational achievements
health criminal involvement work status and other economic outcomes 1 This paper
examines the issue of how workers a ect the productivity of other workers If workers
learn valuable skills and work habits from their co workers then peer e ects between
workers should exist in many work environments A peer e ect across workers could also
result from behavioral considerations such as group norms peer pressure shame and guilt
Recent work suggests that peer e ects between workers are empirically signi cant 2
The existing literature however has not examined whether workers sometimes learn
unethical practices from their co workers in order to boost their productivity A high
payo to performance naturally creates incentives to adopt any means necessary to boost
productivity Given that there is heterogeneity in skill risk aversion and moral character
these incentives will sometimes be strong enough for at least some workers to adopt uneth
ical practices which enhance productivity Once one worker adopts questionable methods
which seem to be e ective competitive pressures may lead others to follow suit in order
to get ahead or perhaps just to stay even with other workers who are adopting similar
This mechanism is a plausible explanation for the apparent widespread use of performance
enhancing drugs in baseball cycling and track and eld Outside the world of sports this
di usion process could show up through the adoption of dubious accounting methods
questionable ethics by lawyers political corruption noncompliance with public disclosure
laws cheating by students biased reporting by the media cheating in academic research
or other ways of skirting legal or ethical requirements The literature on crime has found
that criminal activity does respond to economic conditions see Gould Weinberg and
See Angrist and Lang 2004 Guryan 2004 Hoxby 2000 Sacerdote 2001 Zimmermann 2003
Katz Kling and Liebman 2001 Edin Fredriksson and Aslund 2003 Oreopoulos 2003 Jacob 2004
Weinberg Reagan and Yankow 2004 Gould Lavy and Paserman 2004a and 2004b
See Kandel and Lazear 1992 Ichino and Maggi 2000 Winter 2004 Mas and Moretti 2006 and
Gould and Winter 2007 forthcoming
Mustard 2002 Here we highlight the idea that in the absence of persistent monitoring
and rigid enforcement of ethical and legal practices competitive pressures may lead to a
rat race among workers to learn unethical behavior from co workers in order to boost
their productivity As such this paper makes a contribution to the recent literature that
has demonstrated that agents do respond to incentives to cheat or engage in corruption
Duggan and Levitt 2002 Jacob and Levitt 2003 Wolfers 2006 and Kuziemko and
Werker 2006
To examine the empirical relevance of this issue we estimate whether Jose Canseco
one of the best baseball players in the 1980 s and 1990 s a ected the productivity of his
fellow teammates Among his many accomplishments Jose Canseco was the rst player
in professional baseball to join the 40 40 Club 40 home runs and 40 stolen bases in a
season Canseco was not only one of the most productive players of his era he was highly
controversial both on and o the eld and remains even more so after his retirement in
2001 During his playing career he was frequently in the tabloids for incidents such as
being arrested for bringing a loaded weapon onto a university campus crashing his own
car into his wife s car and dating Madonna While he was still playing rumors circulated
about his use of steroids but he denied them and even considered suing reporters for libel 3
However when he retired in 2001 Canseco admitted to using steroids and claimed that the
phenomenon was so widespread that there would be no baseball left if they drug tested
everyone today Bryant 2005
In 2005 Canseco wrote a highly controversial book Juiced in which he claims not
only to have taken steroids throughout his playing career but also that he gave them to his
fellow teammates The self proclaimed Godfather of Steroids claimed to be a pioneer of
steroid use and takes credit for igniting a contagion of drug use in professional baseball 4
He speci cally named six famous power hitters that he claims to have personally injected
with steroids and claimed that his in uence was much wider than that He writes in his
book page 134 My expertise on steroids could make other players around me a lot
Once the rumour went out that I was on steroids though no one presented smoking guns I was
persona non grata I wanted to sue Boswell but in the end it just didn t seem worth my time Juiced
Chapter 19 of Juiced is titled The Godfather of Steroids
better too Other writers have claimed that Canseco was known as the The Chemist
Bryant 2005 page 189 and the Typhoid Mary of Steroids Fainaru Wada and Williams
2006 page xiii Indeed taking steroids is not simple According to Canseco steroids are
e ective only if they are used correctly in conjunction with human growth hormone lifting
weights a proper diet and abstinence from recreational drugs He claimed that he obtained
his knowledge from extensive reading talking to weightlifters a friend who used them and
experimenting on himself He writes page 135 I was the rst to educate others about
how to use them the rst to experiment and pass on what I d learned and the rst to get
contacts on where to get them I taught which steroid has which e ect on the body and
how to mix or stack certain steroids to get a desired e ect
Canseco claimed that he shared his knowledge not only with other players but
also with trainers who would transmit the knowledge throughout the league He writes
page 211 that As soon as the trainers I talked to started getting involved the steroid
oodgates burst The players started doing them right there in the locker room so openly
that absolutely everybody knew what was happening It was so open the trainers would
jokingly call the steroid injections B12 shots and soon the players had picked up on that
little code name too Two years after Canseco s book the Mitchell Report 2007 also
made accusations of widespread use of steroids and human growth hormone in professional
baseball The two main sources of information for the report came from two trainers Kirk
Radomski and Brian McNamee who provided evidence that they supplied 53 players with
steroids and human growth hormone McNamee is directly linked to Canseco since they
both worked for the Toronto Blue Jays in 1998 and McNamee admits in the report that
he consulted with Canseco on the use of steroids and considered him a knowledgeable
expert 5 McNamee later went on to inject many other players during his tenure with the
New York Yankees and thus Canseco has a direct link to the contagion outlined in the
Mitchell Report
The Mitchell Reports 2007 states on pages 169 170 During the 1998 season around the time of
the injections Clemens showed McNamee a white bottle of Anadrol 50 Clemens told McNamee he was
not using it but wanted to know more about it McNamee told Clemens not to use it McNamee said he
took the bottle and gave it to Canseco In footnote 387 on page 170 it states McNamee stated that he
showed the bottle to Canseco because he thought that Canseco was knowledgeable and he felt comfortable
approaching him According to McNamee Canseco volunteered to take the bottle
Interestingly the most notorious accusation in the Mitchell Report is also linked to
Canseco In the report McNamee claims that he supplied steroids to Roger Clemens who
is widely considered one of the greatest pitchers of all time 6 Clemens and Canseco were
teammates in 1998 in Toronto and McNamee testi es that Clemens asked McNamee for
help with steroids for the rst time shortly after he witnessed Clemens having a meeting
with Canseco 7 Canseco admits that he never saw Clemens take steroids but he told the
Mitchell Commission that he practically encouraged Clemens to use steroids by explaining
on numerous occasions the bene ts of Deca Durabolin and Winstrol and how to cycle
and stack steroids 8 In his book Canseco also talks about conversations with Clemens
about the need for pitchers like him to take steroids in response to the widespread use of
batters who were gaining the upper hand 9
However considering Canseco s tarnished reputation and his penchant for doing just
about anything for money no one really knows whether his claims are true or whether they
were part of a publicity stunt to help promote his book His claims have been disputed and
even the Mitchell Report 2007 did not give much credence to his testimony despite the
fact that Canseco was one of the only current or former players who agreed to cooperate
with the investigation 10 Although many suspect that at least some of his claims are true
In response to the Mitchell Report Clemens denies all accusations of using steroids and human growth
hormone but admits to taking shots of B12 However two years prior to the Mitchell Report 2007
Canseco not only claimed that the term B12 shot was a nickname for steroids but he speci cally
mentioned that Clemens used that term as a euphemism for steroids in their conversations Canseco
writes on page 211 I ve never seen Roger Clemens do steroids and he never told me that he did But
we ve talked about what steroids could do for you in which combinations and I ve heard him use the
phrase B12 shot with respect to others
The Mitchell Report states on page 168 McNamee attended a lunch party that Canseco hosted at his
home in Miami McNamee stated that during this luncheon he observed Clemens Canseco and another
person he did not know meeting inside Canseco s house although McNamee did not personally attend
that meeting Toward the end of the road trip which included the Marlins series or shortly after
the Blue Jays returned home to Toronto Clemens approached McNamee and for the rst time brought
up the subject of using steroids Clemens said that he was not able to inject himself and he asked for
McNamee s help
Mitchell Report 2007 page 168
Canseco writes on page 211 A lot of pitchers did steroids to keep up with hitters If everyone else
was getting stronger and faster then you wanted to get stronger and faster too If you were a pitcher
and the hitters were all getting stronger that made your job that much more di cult Roger Clemens
used to talk about that a lot You hitters are so darn strong from steroids he d say Yeah but you
pitchers are taking it too You re just taking di erent types I d respond
Three of the seven players that Canseco claimed in his book that he personally injected with steroids
were not even mentioned in the report Ivan Rodriguez Wilson Alvarez and Dave Martinez Three
of the other players were cited by the report but not for evidence provided by Canseco Canseco also
the same people often suspect that many are exaggerated For example Bryant 2005
page 373 writes of Jose Canseco and his book He is the mysterious frustrating character
he was as a player gifted intelligent and provocative yet given to exaggeration spite
and contradiction In making his points he violates the tenet of clubhouse secrecy that
for years maintained the steroid era He violates the trust of the players with whom he
won and lost games with whom he caroused drank and laughed Canseco returns years
of ridicule with a withering indictment of the sport
This paper analyzes whether there is any empirical evidence to support the notion
that Jose Canseco a ected the performance of his teammates by turning them on to steroid
use The hypothesis is tested using panel data on the performance of baseball players from
1970 to 2003 After controlling for the individual xed e ect of each player and a rich set
of other control variables experience year e ects home ballpark characteristics division
e ects and managerial quality the empirical analysis shows that a player s performance
signi cantly increases after playing on the same team with Jose Canseco This result is
especially true for measures of performance like power hitting which are typically a ected
by physical strength However the results are signi cant for simple batting performance
as well where baseball folklore maintains that physical strength is not a dominant factor
The results are smaller but still signi cant if the sample excludes the six players
that Jose Canseco claims to have personally injected with steroids This pattern is con
sistent with the idea that these players did indeed bene t from Canseco s human capital
in chemistry but they also might indicate that Canseco cherry picked six of the most
productive players that he played with even if they are completely innocent just for the
promotional value of creating a larger scandal Therefore our ndings that the results are
signi cant for both the entire sample which Canseco could not possibly cherry pick for
his book and the sample without the six players present strong evidence that Canseco
had a positive in uence on the productivity of his teammates We then check to see if
30 other comparable players from the same era generated similar positive e ects on their
teammates This analysis reveals no evidence of similar e ects from any other player
named other players that he did not personally inject as users and these players were not mentioned in
the report either Bret Boone Tony Saunders and Brady Anderson
thus indicating that Jose Canseco had an unusual in uence on the productivity of his
It is important to note that the results are not driven by a common shock to all
players on the same team which is always a potential problem in the identi cation of peer
e ects There are several reasons for this First Canseco played on ten di erent teams
throughout his career In fact the seven players that Canseco claimed to have injected
played on three di erent teams with him 11 Second the positive e ect of Canseco on his
peers shows up after they no longer play with him and therefore are playing for various
teams in the league So the results could not come from a common shock to all players on
one team Third as stated above we found no evidence of peer e ects for six power hitters
who played with Canseco and shared the same coaches and team characteristics which
refutes the idea that the e ect is coming from the team rather than Canseco himself
A word of caution is appropriate regarding the interpretation of our ndings Al
though the results are consistent with Canseco s claims that he improved his teammates
by introducing them to steroids the results cannot identify exactly why his teammates
seemed to have bene ted from playing with him It is possible that they bene tted from
his workout habits batting technique work ethic etc However in the very least the
evidence provides considerable back up to his bravado I don t think there s any question
that when I arrived in Texas the other Rangers saw me as a useful resource Juiced
page 134 Given the multi million dollar incentives inherent in professional baseball we
now show you why his teammates felt that way
2 The Data and Background
The data was obtained from the Baseball Archive which is copyrighted by Sean Lahman
and is a freely available on the Internet for research purposes The data contains extensive
personal and yearly performance information on players coaches and teams for every
season of professional baseball The sample is restricted to the seasons between 1970 and
McGwire played with Canseco on the Oakland A s in the late 1980 s Palmeiro Gonzalez and Ro
driguez played with Canseco on the Texas Rangers in the early 1990 s Giambi played with Canseco on
the Oakland A s in 1997 and Alvarez and Martinez played with Canseco on the Tampa Bay Devil Rays
in the late 1990 s
2003 Pitchers are included in the sample if they pitched at least 10 games in a season
while non pitchers are included if they batted at least 50 times in a season The unit of
observation is the person year so all variables are measured at the annual level
Table 1 presents summary statistics for the sample The upper portion of the ta
ble presents the means and standard deviations for standard measures of performance by
non pitchers homeruns strikeouts which typically are high if you are trying to hit home
runs RBI s runs batted in batting average number of hits per time at bat slugging
percentage which is similar to the batting average but takes into consideration the quality
of the hit intentional walks which are typically high if you are a dangerous batter base
on balls typically high if you are a dangerous batter steals typically related to speed
but Canseco claims that steroids helped him steal by making him faster errors in eld
ing number of times at bat and number of games played The sample of non pitchers
is divided into power hitters rst base out elders catchers and designated hitters
and position players second base third base and short stop The former category
emphasizes batting with power homeruns slugging percentage etc while the second one
emphasizes elding skills at the expense of hitting prowess This pattern is exhibited in
Table 1 which shows that power hitters hit 9 55 homeruns per year versus 6 38 for position
players The slugging percentage is also considerably higher for power hitters
Table 1 also shows the means for variables which concern the extent to which players
interacted with Canseco throughout his career The variable ever with Canseco is a
dummy variable for ever playing on the same team with Canseco while the variable called
currently with Canseco is a dummy variable for currently being on the same team as
Canseco in a given year Table 1 indicates the 12 percent of the players in the sample
played with Canseco at some point in their careers while 2 percent were currently playing
with him in a given year 12
The bottom panel of Table 1 presents summary statistics for pitchers The standard
indicator of a pitcher s performance is called the ERA Earned Run Average 13 A higher
Only 2 percent of the players played with Canseco in a given year because there are 30 teams in
professional baseball as of 2000 and Canseco played in only half of the seasons in our sample
This measure takes the number of runs that a pitcher allows the opposing team to obtain and scales
it by the number of innings played so that it represents the average number of runs which would have
ERA re ects poorer performance The average ERA is 4 20 while 13 percent of the pitchers
played at some point with Canseco and 2 percent play concurrently on the same team with
Table 2 presents summary statistics for a list of individual players The list includes
Jose Canseco the six power hitters named by Jose Canseco as players that he personally
injected with steroids Rafael Palmeiro Jason Giambi Mark McGwire Juan Gonzalez
Ivan Rodriguez and Dave Martinez Ken Caminiti who admitted that he took steroids
but was not implicated by Canseco and never played with Canseco and three leading
power position players from the 1990 s that have never been implicated in any scandal and
never played with Jose Canseco Ken Gri ey Jr Ryne Sandberg and Cecil Fielder 14
Like Canseco most of these other players were voted most valuable player at some point
in their career Canseco in 1988 Sandberg in 1984 Caminiti in 1996 Gonzalez in 1996
and 1998 Gri ey in 1997 Rodriguez in 1999 and Giambi in 2000
Comparing these players to the overall average Table 2 reveals a pattern which is
very typical for excellent power hitters many homeruns very high slugging percentage a
little better than average batting average many RBI s and many strikeouts since going for
homeruns often results in strikes Also these players have higher than normal intentional
walks and base on balls since the opposing teams often pitch around dangerous hitters
to prevent them from getting a homerun
Overall Table 2 demonstrates that this list of players includes some of the best power
hitters of their generation although Dave Martinez is perhaps not quite at the same level
as the others The statistics for Jose Canseco certainly show that he belongs in this elite
group but he does not stand out among the group as being the absolute best In the
next section we examine whether Jose Canseco a ected the performance of his peers and
then we compare the results for Canseco to those obtained by estimating the peer e ect
been scored o the pitcher in a full game The ERA is calculated by number of earned runs innings
pitched 9 Runs due to defensive errors by other players are not counted hence the name earned run
In Canseco s book he also named pitcher Wilson Alvarez who is not included in the table because
he is not a hitter Ken Caminiti was the most valuable player in the National League 1996 but later
admitted that he took steroids throughout his career He ended his 15 year career in 2001 and died in
2004 of a heart attack In an interview with Sports Illustrated in 2002 Caminiti estimated that half of
the players in baseball are on steroids See http espn go com classic obit s 2004 1010 1899091 html
of players who had similar careers and played during the same era the 10 players listed in
Table 2 plus 20 other players who are among the best homerun hitters of all time
3 The Empirical Analysis
This section examines how the performance of individual players is a ected by coming
into contact with Jose Canseco Figure 1 presents a naive analysis by showing the mean
homeruns for three mutually exclusive categories of power hitting players those that never
played with Canseco those that were playing concurrently with Canseco and those that
played with Canseco in the past Figure 1 shows that players who played with Canseco in
the past have much higher homeruns than those who played with him concurrently and
both of these groups have much higher homerun production than those that never played
with him Figure 2 displays a similar pattern regarding the slugging percentage those
that played with him are much better sluggers than those that did not
This stark pattern could be due to the higher ability levels of players who happened
to play with Canseco in the present and past or it may be due to the causal e ect of
Canseco on his peers To control for the non random allocation of players who might
have played with Canseco over time all regressions will include individual xed e ects
Furthermore Figures 1 and 2 suggest that the e ect of Canseco on his peers may be
di erent between current and former teammates Therefore to allow for the possibility
that it may take a period of time for Canseco to a ect the performance of his teammates
the analysis examines whether there is evidence for an immediate e ect of Canseco on the
output of current teammates and whether there is a lingering e ect of Canseco on former
teammates The basic regression equation is the following
perf ormanceit 1 playing with canseco it
0 2 af ter canseco it
i 3 other controls it it
where the performance of player i in year t is a function of a dummy variable for whether
he plays on the same team as Jose Canseco in year t playing with canseco a dummy
variable for having played with Canseco in the past but not during year t af ter canseco
the xed ability of player i represented by i other observable control variables and the
unobserved component which varies over time it 15 Separate regressions are run for each
performance measure listed in Table 1 The other control variables include the batting
average in player i s division excluding his own team in year t which controls for the
quality of the pitching and batting in the team s division in the same year the team
manager s lifetime winning percentage which is an indicator for the quality of the team s
coaching the ballpark hitting factor which control for whether the team s ballpark is easy
or di cult for batters in year t the player s years of experience number seasons played
in the league year e ects and dummy variables for each division It is worth noting
that these control variables have no e ect on our results for the other coe cients The
unobserved ability of player i i is controlled for by including xed e ects for each player
The main parameters of interest are 1 and 2 which indicate whether Jose Canseco
a ected the performance of his current or former teammates respectively We model the
potential e ect of Canseco on his peers as an intercept e ect since the main factor is
likely to be whether the person takes steroids or not rather than learning how to inject
steroids over time Also the distinction between playing with Canseco and playing
after Canseco is important since even if a player did learn about steroids from Canseco
we do not know when he learned about it during his time with Canseco but we can be
sure that he already acquired the knowledge after playing with Canseco The inclusion
of a xed e ect for each player means that we are exploiting variation in performance
levels within the career of each player rather than exploiting variation in the types of
players that may have played with Canseco over time In this manner the empirical
strategy controls for the endogenous personnel decisions of team managers Therefore
identi cation of the parameters of interest comes from seeing whether variation within a
given player s performance over time deviates from the typical player s experience pro le
in a way that is correlated with being a current or former teammate of Jose Canseco
The basic xed e ect regressions for power hitters are presented in Table 3 Each
If a player played with Canseco in non consecutive years the variable for playing with Canseco is
equal to 1 for every year starting in the rst year that the player played with Canseco until the last year
that he played with Canseco The variable after Canseco is equal to one for every year after the last
year that the player played with Canseco
column represents a separate regression using the indicated performance measure as the
dependent variable Column 1 shows that after controlling for all the other variables a
given power player has more homeruns on average during years that he plays with Canseco
the estimate for 1 is 1 13 with standard error 0 66 However homerun production seems
to pick up even more after playing with Canseco the estimate for 2 is 2 91 with standard
error 0 64 The same pattern exists for all of the performance measures strikeouts
RBI s slugging percentage batting average intentional walks and base on balls Each
of these performance measures increase in a statistically signi cant way after playing with
Jose Canseco but rarely are they statistically signi cant while playing with Canseco It is
worth noting that an increase in each of these measures is indicative of a higher performing
power hitter more homeruns more strikeouts a higher slugging percentage and more
attempts by the other team to pitch around a dangerous hitter expressed by more
intentional walks and base on balls
The reason why playing with Canseco has a much smaller e ect than playing after
Canseco may be due to the idea mentioned above that players who learn about steroids
from Canseco do not take steroids during the whole time they are playing with Canseco
but do use them during the entire time that they are former teammates with him Alter
natively it may take some time for Canseco s positive e ect to be realized or this pattern
may be due to the fact that players who play with him spend more of their time as former
teammates of Canseco than being current teammates of him For example power hitters
who played at least one season with Canseco in our sample spent 17 percent of their seasons
on a team with Canseco and 33 percent of their seasons being former teammates with him
Also the smaller e ect of playing with Canseco may be due to the idea that Canseco took
away scarce team resources such as playing time attention from coaches and trainers etc
If this were true then similar peer e ects should be found for other baseball stars As we
show later we do not nd similar e ects for other stars which casts doubt on the hypoth
esis that star players crowd out the performance of other players If however we do
not di erentiate between current and former players by using one variable which indicates
whether the player either plays currently or in the past with Canseco the coe cient for
homeruns is 2 05 and is still highly signi cant with a standard error of 0 549
The coe cients in Table 3 are signi cant statistically and also sizeable in magnitude
The estimated e ect of playing after Canseco on homeruns is 2 91 which is 30 5 of the
mean homerun production of power hitters 9 55 displayed in Table 1 After playing with
Jose Canseco a typical power hitter is also estimated to increase his RBI s by 22 percent
a coe cient of 9 174 compared to the mean RBI s of 41 78 Apparently the bene ts of
playing with Canseco were quite large
Table 4 presents additional results for power hitters using alternative measures of
performance The rst three columns show that Canseco had no discernible e ect on steals
elding percentage and elding errors Neither of these outcomes is considered particularly
important for power hitting nor are they typically thought of as being a ected by physical
strength So the lack of any e ect for these outcomes strengthens the interpretation of
the results in Table 3 that Canseco had a signi cantly positive e ect on the hitting power
of his former teammates by a ecting their physical strength
Columns 4 and 5 in Table 4 show that power hitters signi cantly increase their
playing time number of times at bat and number of games played in a season after playing
with Canseco 16 Contrary to the outcomes in the rst three columns playing time should
increase for a power hitter if his hitting prowess has improved 17 The e ect of Canseco
on playing time could be a reason why we see several power hitting performance measures
increase in Table 3 after playing with Canseco For example a power hitter will naturally
tend to hit more homeruns and RBI s if they have more chances at bat The nal column
of Table 4 re runs the regression for homeruns but controls for number of at bats In
comparison to the results in Table 3 which did not control for the number of at bats
the results are much smaller but still statistically signi cant That is a players homerun
production increases after playing with Canseco even if we condition on the number of
chances at bat Also it should be noted that two of the outcomes in Table 3 slugging
Since playing time is clearly an endogenous outcome which seems to be a ected by Canseco our
preferred speci cation does not include playing time as a control variable However as discussed later
the strong positive e ect of Canseco on his peers operates not only through increased playing time but
also on measures of performance that are normalized by playing time slugging percentage and batting
Also Canseco claimed that steroids help players recover from injuries faster which could also increase
playing time In his personal case he claimed that steroids extended his career by enabling him to play
with serious back problems

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Pottawatomie County 4-H Recognition Report For Groups and ...

Pottawatomie County 4-H Recognition Report For Groups and ...

Pottawatomie County 4-H Recognition Report For Groups and Clubs Dear Leaders, This report is designed to help your club set goals for the 4-H year.

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Larimer County 4-H Club Directory- 2018-2019

Larimer County 4-H Club Directory- 2018-2019

Larimer County 4-H Club Directory- 2018-2019 *Club meeting dates/locations are subject to change. Please contact the club leader to confirm before visiting club. * Permission must be obtained from Larimer County Extension in order to include emails in a list serve Location Club Name Primary Project Focus Taking New Memebers Accept Cloverbuds (5-

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A Guide for 4-H Club Officers - pubs.ext.vt.edu

A Guide for 4-H Club Officers - pubs.ext.vt.edu

reserved so that all 4-H members may sit together. Some 4-H’ers will decorate the church with appropriate flowers, and others will read the Scripture, provide special music, and distribute the church bulletins. Parents of 4-H members are invited. Another feature of the club meeting last Thursday was a discussion and demonstration on proper ...

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Naming 4-H Clubs

Naming 4-H Clubs

All applicable policies and regulations of the 4-H program impact the guidance for naming 4-H clubs and entities including but not limited to Title IX and Civil Rights. GUIDANCE Names must be Specific - The selected name should be specific to the individual 4-H club or entity either

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Selecting a 4-H Club Name

Selecting a 4-H Club Name

potential club members might shy away just because of a misleading name. For example "The Sewing Susan's" would discriminate against or discourage boys from participating, whereas "The Nimble Thimbles 4-H Club" might be a better idea. Creative or cute names for 4-H clubs are fine — but plan for the name to

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Selecting a Name for Your 4-H Club - For Your Information

Selecting a Name for Your 4-H Club - For Your Information

overlook subtle insinuations that some club names might acciden-tally exhibit. Creative or cute names for 4-H clubs are fine—but consider whether any potential club members might shy away from joining just because of a misleading name. To maintain a positive image for the entire 4-H program, club names should neither shock nor confuse the ...

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