Module 1 Cemca-PDF Free Download

Module 1 CEMCA

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Module Editor Ramnath Bhat Maraa, Bengaluru ... 7.3 Electrical Basics 7.4 AC/DC Current ... 5.5.3 A schematic overview of a production studio



Community Radio An Introduction
4 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
Understanding Community Radio
Setting up of CRS
Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia Commonwealth Educational Media
Broadcast Engineering
1 Consultants India Ltd
New Delhi Centre for Asia Noida UP
Module 2 Setting up ofSetting
CRS up of CRS
Curriculum Design Experts
Abhay Gupta BECIL Noida N Ramakrishnan Ideosync Media Combine Faridabad
Aditeshwar Seth Gram Vaani New Delhi Pankaj Athawale MUST Radio Mumbai University Mumbai
C R K Murthy STRIDE IGNOU New Delhi Ramnath Bhat Maraa Bengaluru
D Rukmini Vemraju CEMCA New Delhi Ravina Aggarwal Ford Foundation New Delhi
Hemant Babu Nomad Mumbai Sanjaya Mishra CEMCA New Delhi
Iskra Panevska UNESCO New Delhi Santosh Panda STRIDE IGNOU New Delhi
J P Nathani BECIL Noida Satish Nagaraji One World South Asia New Delhi
Jayalakshmi Chittoor Independent Consultant New Delhi Supriya Sahu Ministry of I B GoI New Delhi
K Subramanian BECIL Noida V Krishnamoorthy Independent Consultant New Delhi
Kandarpa Das Radio Luit Gauhati University Guwahati Y K Sharma BECIL Noida
Module Development Team
Authors Instructional Designer Chief Editor
N Ramakrishnan Unit 5 6 Prof Santosh Panda B P Srivastava
Ideosync Media Combine Indira Gandhi National Open BECIL Noida
Faridabad University New Delhi
Module Editor
H R Chug Units 7 8
BECIL Surat Ramnath Bhat
Maraa Bengaluru
Course Development Coordinator Layout Designer
Ankuran Dutta Sabyasachi Panja Language Editor
CEMCA New Delhi B Natarajan
D Rukmini Vemraju
CEMCA New Delhi up to 30 9 2013
The Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia CEMCA is an international organization established by the Commonwealth of
Learning COL Vancouver Canada to promote the meaningful relevant and appropriate use of ICTs to serve the educational and training
needs of Commonwealth member states of Asia CEMCA receives diplomatic privileges and immunities in India under section 3 of the United
Nations privileges and immunities Act 1947
Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited BECIL an ISO certified Mini Ratna public sector enterprise of Government of India was
established in the year 1995 and provides project consultancy services and turnkey solutions encompassing the entire gamut of radio and
television broadcast engineering viz content production facilities terrestrial satellite and cable broadcasting in India abroad It also
provides associated services like trained manpower and organizing training for the technical staff in the areas of broadcast engineering
Copyright CEMCA 2014
This module is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4 0 License international
http creativecommons org licenses by sa 4 0
For the avoidance of doubt by applying this license Commonwealth of Learning and Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia CEMCA
do not waive any privileges or immunities from claims that they may be entitled to assert nor do COL CEMCA submit themselves to the
jurisdiction courts legal processes or laws of any jurisdiction
81 88770 14 0 10 digits
978 81 88770 14 4 13 digits
While all efforts have been made by Editors to check accuracy of the content the representation of facts principles descriptions and methods
are that of the respective authors Views expressed in the publication are that of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of
CEMCA COL All products and services mentioned are owned by their respective copyrights holders and mere presentation in the publication
does not mean endorsement by CEMCA COL Every effort has been made to acknowledge and attribute all sources of information used in
preparation of this learning material Readers are requested to kindly notify missing attribution if any
For further information contact
Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia
13 14 Sarv Priya Vihar
New Delhi 110016
http www cemca org in
e mail admin cemca org in
Printed and published on behalf of Director CEMCA by Mr R Thyagarajan Head Administration and Finance CEMCA 13 14 Sarv Priya Vihar
New Delhi 110016 India
2 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Certificate in Community Radio Technology
Setting up of CRS
Courses Modules Units
Course I Module 1 Unit 1 Community Radio Concept and
Understanding Community Radio Evolution
Community Radio An Introduction Unit 2 Context Access and Equity
3 Credits 90 Hours Unit 3 Community Radio Policy Guidelines
Unit 4 Technology for CR Guiding Principles
Module 2 Unit 5 Components of CR Station
Setting up of CRS Unit 6 Radio Waves and Spectrum
Unit 7 Basics of Electricity
Unit 8 Power Backup and Voltage
Stabilisation
Course II Module 3 Unit 9 Basics of Sound
Community Radio Studio Technology Unit 10 Analog and Digital Audio
Production System Unit 11 Components of the Audio Chain
Technology Unit 12 Studio Acoustics
5 Credits 150 Hours
Module 4 Unit 13 Audio Hardware and Field Recording
Audio Production Unit 14 Free and Open Source Software
Unit 15 Telephony for Radio
Module 5 Unit 16 Sound Recording and Editing
Audio Post Production Unit 17 Mixing and Mastering
Unit 18 File Formats and Compression
Unit 19 Storing and Retrieval
Module 6 Unit 20 Good Engineering Practices for Studio
Studio Operations Setup
Unit 21 Studio Equipment Preventive
Corrective Maintenance
Unit 22 Content Distribution Alternative
Mechanisms
Course III Module 7 Unit 23 Components of Transmission Chain
Community Radio Radio Transmission Unit 24 Components of FM Transmitter
Transmission System Technology Unit 25 Antenna and Coaxial Cable
Technology Unit 26 Propagation and Coverage
2 Credits 60 Hrs
Module 8 Unit 27 Transmitter Setup Step by step
FM Transmitter Setup Unit 28 Transmission System Preventive and
Corrective Maintenance
Unit 29 Transmission Setup Good Engineering
Course IV Module 9 Section A Introduction
Technical Internship Practical Internship Section B Activities to be Conducted During the
2 Credits 60 Hrs Handbook Practical Internship
Section C The Internship Journal and Self
Assessment Paper
Section D Assessment of Internship
Section E Appendices
Commonwealth Educational Media 3
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
Videos in the Module
1 Components of a CR Station
by Hemant Babu
2 Power Backup for CRS
by Hemant Babu
3 Introduction to Radio Waves
by Vasuki Belavadi
1 http tinyurl com ogqhsmf
2 http tinyurl com pdqcrgt
3 http tinyurl com p5kykyc
4 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
About the Module 7
Unit 5 Components of a CR Station 9
5 1 Introduction
5 2 Learning Outcomes
5 3 The CR Station Siting and Space Definition
5 4 Studios for Community Radio
5 5 Equipment for CR schematic level only
5 6 Setting up a CRS Activity and Video
5 7 Let Us Sum Up
5 8 Model Answers to Activities
Unit 6 Radio Waves and Spectrum 36
6 1 Introduction
6 2 Learning Outcomes
6 3 Electromagnetic Spectrum and Radio Waves
6 4 Frequency Bands for Radio Broadcasting
6 5 A Brief History of Radio Broadcasting
6 6 Regulatory Authorities and Processes
6 7 Let Us Sum Up
6 8 Model Answers to Activities
Unit 7 Basics of Electricity 52
7 1 Introduction
7 2 Learning Outcomes
7 3 Electrical Basics
7 4 AC DC Current
7 5 Load Distribution
7 6 Power Consumption and Conservation
7 7 Let Us Sum Up
7 8 Model Answers to Activities
Unit 8 Power Backup and Voltage Stabilisation 70
8 1 Introduction
8 2 Learning Outcomes
8 3 Power Backup and Voltage Stabilisation
8 4 Alternative Sources of Energy
8 5 Let Us Sum Up
8 8 Model Answers to Activities
Commonwealth Educational Media 5
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
6 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
About the Module
In the previous module you would have got not only an introduction to the
concept of community radio but also an idea about some of the guiding
principles behind community radio the basic technology in community radio
how community radio can be used in the context of gender and equity and so on
Now that you have put that behind you the first step in becoming a technician for
community radio is to start thinking about how to set up a community radio This
module gets you started on setting up a community radio and the basic things
you must know before beginning This module has four units which will provide
you with basic knowledge related to setting up of a community radio station
The components of a CR station are meant for you to understand the basic
building blocks of what constitutes a radio station However some of the
components are explored in depth in the later modules
The Unit on radio waves and spectrum will be important for you to get an
analytical understanding of the underlying technology of radio While you may
not get an opportunity to put this knowledge to use on a day to day basis you
will find this useful in understanding radio at a fundamental level Remember
that competent technicians don t just solve problems but they know why those
problems occur as well
The Unit on basics of electricity is geared to give you a theoretical understanding
of how electricity works While working as a technician in community radio it
very well may be the case that you will be asked to solve issues which have to
deal with power supply or in other words electricity Often there are issues like
excessive voltage uneven supply i e dips or surges of power frequent power
cuts and so on If you have a good understanding of the concepts behind
electricity then it will equip you to come up with the best solution given the
context of a particular community radio
The last Unit is related to power backup and voltage stabilisation As noted
above this is a problem which occurs frequently in most rural community radio
stations Choosing the right power backup or voltage stabilisation solution can be
a complex task and requires a sound knowledge of how backup and stabilisation
can be configured in the context of underlying principles as well as available
resources at your disposal Interestingly the Unit also mentions various
alternative energy sources which could be used for power backup Not only will
this knowledge help you to propose environmentally friendly solutions but it
could also be an economically viable solution in the long term
Commonwealth Educational Media 7
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
Module Objectives
Familiarity with processes and principles involved in setting up a
community radio station
Understanding of the technology behind radio waves and electromagnetic
Familiarity with solutions related to power backup and stabilisation of
Units in the Module
Components of a CR Station
Radio Waves and Spectrum
Basics of Electricity
Power Backup and Voltage Stabilisation
8 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
Components of a CR Station
5 1 Introduction
5 2 Learning Outcomes
5 3 The CR Station Siting and Space Definition
5 3 1 Site selection
5 3 2 Space allocation
5 4 Studios for Community Radio Stations
5 4 1 Sample layouts
5 4 2 Acoustics treatment and sound proofing
5 4 3 Other considerations
5 5 Equipment for CR schematic level only
5 5 1 An overview of the programme production process
5 5 2 A schematic overview of a field recording setup
5 5 3 A schematic overview of a production studio
5 5 4 A schematic overview of a broadcast studio
5 5 5 A schematic overview of the transmission setup
5 6 Setting up a CRS Activity and Video
5 7 Let Us Sum Up
5 8 Model Answers to Activities
Commonwealth Educational Media 9
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
5 1 Introduction
By now you have already received a broad grounding in the philosophy of
community radio as well as an understanding of the essential decision points
according to which we select equipment and technology for a CR station
This Unit will now discuss the various components of a CRS station and will
provide an overview of how these components are related to each other It will
discuss the key points we need to keep in mind while deciding on a site for the
CRS as well as when we setup the studio and production spaces Through these
discussions this Unit will provide a broad introduction to the CRS as a whole
details of which you will study in further Units You may require approximately 40
hours to complete this Unit
5 2 Learning Outcomes
After working through this Unit you will be able to
discuss various components of a CRS
describe the issues related to appropriate space and site selection for a
describe how to plan the utilization of the available space for the various
tasks in a CRS
describe the preparatory work in a studio including acoustic treatment
soundproofing and related arrangements
explain the broad interactions between various technical components of
5 3 The CR Station Siting and Space Definition
Having understood the philosophy of community radio and the criteria for
selection of equipment it is now time to understand the first steps in actually
setting up a CRS i e finding a relevant location and dividing the available space
into studio and working spaces
5 3 1 Site selection
One of the most important decisions we have to take for the setting up of a CRS
from a social purpose point of view as well as a technological point of view is
where to locate it This process is called site selection or siting and is based on a
10 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
number of critical considerations Let us look at some of the criteria we need to
keep in mind
The physical location and distribution of the served community
The core of a community radio station is its listener community by which we
mean the core group of listeners whose information needs the station will serve
and for whom it will provide a platform for expression Given this it is important
that the station should be in a place where these community members can access
it easily and participate regularly in programme creation In short the station
should be accessible to every member of the local community young or old man
or woman physically sound or differently abled This is why the Community
Radio Guidelines 2006 which lay out the regulations governing CR in India also
make it mandatory to establish the CRS within the geographical area where its
potential listener community resides
We can achieve this by first mapping where the potential listeners of the CRS
stay work and live Once we have a clear picture of this we must try to locate the
CRS as centrally within this area as possible so that it is roughly equidistant for all
the people who live around it
Simultaneously we must also try to situate it in a building or space that is already
familiar to the community members and which they are likely to pass during
their daily routine near the village panchayat say or a community centre if
there is one Some CR stations are set up near key crossroads within the locality
or near market places Note that this can be a challenge where community
residential spaces are clustered by caste or profession many Indian villages are
divided into caste based and ethnicity based sectors It is best to place the CRS
in a neutral space where everyone can be encouraged to participate without
hesitation In keeping with our philosophy of community ownership the station
should be housed in a community donated or provided building This way it will
become an intrinsic part of the community s life from the outset It will also avoid
the nuisance value not to mention financial burden of paying rent and being
subject to the whims and fancies of a landlord This is especially important from
the point of view of transmission licensing which locks down your transmitter
location to a given physical location for the duration of the license
Local geography and terrain
The second most important criterion to keep in mind is the physical layout of the
land whether it is totally flat undulating or whether it has a slope or a
depression anywhere
This is important because the propagation of FM the radio transmission
technology used for community radio broadcasting is line of sight This means
the transmission can only be heard when the radio receiver set can electronically
see the transmission antenna with no or few obstacles This means we must
Commonwealth Educational Media 11
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
choose a location for the station and by extension the antenna and the mast
tower it is mounted on which is not surrounded by tall buildings or hidden by a
hill or mountain or situated inside a depression in the local landscape Such
obstacles will block the signal and result in no reception shadow zones within
the transmission area
Figure 5 1 Radio shadow zone caused by a mountain situated near the CRS
Source CR A User s Guide to the Technology N Ramakrishnan UNESCO 2008
Of course this does not mean that we cannot use this phenomenon to our
advantage on occasion CR stations by design and purpose are low output power
stations meant to reach comparatively small areas But if our community
happens to reside in a hilly or mountainous area setting the CRS on the slope or
at the tallest accessible point in the area may well give it additional range Just as
standing on a hill gives you a vantage point for a commanding view of the
surrounding area such a site could increase your effective range and reach a
larger audience Such considerations must not of course over ride our primary
consideration of accessibility and community participation so don t go locating
the CRS at a place only a mountaineer or rock climber could access Moreover
mounting the antenna at a height greater than 30M from the average terrain of
the geographical community may pose problems in getting the technical
clearance from the authorities
Local noise levels
Even while we try to locate the CRS in an accessible place as close to community
life as possible we have to try and keep ambient noise levels low By ambient
noise we mean the general noise levels in the area Good recording quality is
12 Commonwealth Educational Media
Centre for Asia
Setting up of CRS
dependent on having minimum background sound unless we are trying to create
a feel of the area and context If the ambient noise levels are high we will have
to invest more effort and resources in blocking the external sound from reaching
the studio This is called sound proofing the studio On the other hand if we
can find a site that is accessible but where the ambient noise levels are low we
will need to do comparatively little to make the studio spaces suitable for
recording audio
Transmission signal strength
Transmission signal strength is a measure of how powerful the Effective Radiated
Power ERP of the transmission system is Just as a brighter bulb illuminates a
larger area a transmission system of higher output power can reach a larger area
with the signal it transmits Another factor that affects the signal strength is the
effective height of the antenna above the average terrain EHAAT At a purely
theoretical level some areas could benefit by an increase in EHAAT which could
overcome physical barriers or geographical factors to some extent
At a practical level though the transmission strength for a CRS is limited to 100
Watts of Effective Radiated Power ERP by the Community Radio Guidelines
2006 issued by the Govt of India So we cannot increase the strength of our
signal output in order to reach a greater area However the policy guidelines do
allow for increase in ERP of up to 250 Watts in special cases such as if the
community is sparsely distributed in the region surrounding the proposed site
there are challenges related to broadcasting in hilly or heavily obstructed terrain
In case these conditions exist it is possible that the station could be allowed a
higher transmission output
The trade off between siting criteria
While it is important to keep the four factors we have discussed above in mind
we must also be realistic in understanding that we will rarely find an ideal site
that meets all these requirements at the same time You will have to trade off all
these factors against each other and take a decision that is in the best interests
and purpose of the station Very often you will find that the decision is only
partly in your hands since the decision may eventually have to be taken on the
basis of pure convenience and the availability of adequate space So keep these
criteria in mind to the extent possible when weighing options against each other
5 3 2 Space allocation
Now that we have selected a suitable site for our CRS it is time to examine how
we will divide up the space that we have into suitable work spaces Again it is
wise to remember that CR stations often work with community donated spaces
and often without the resources to put up a building from scratch So it requires a
bit of ingenuity to adapt the ideas in this section into feasible plans
Commonwealth Educational Media 13
Centre for Asia


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