Moringa Moringa Oleifera Feedipedia-PDF Free Download

Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia

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Moringa leaves are also eaten as a salad or dried and ground to make a very nutritious leaf powder. Moringa leaf powder is used to aid the restoration of infants suffering from malnutrition. Moringa flowers are used to make tea, added into sauces or made into a paste and fried. The young pods are prepared, and taste like asparagus. Older pods can be added to sauces and curries in which their ...



Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
All parts of moringa are consumed as food The plant produces leaves during the dry season and during times of drought and
is an excellent source of green vegetable when little other food is available FAO 2014 Moringa is mainly grown for its leaves
in Africa and much appreciated for its pods in Asia Bosch 2004 Leaves pods roots and flowers can be cooked as
vegetables The roots have been used as a substitute for horseradish but may be slightly toxic The leaves are very nutritious
and rich in protein vitamins A B and C and minerals They are highly recommended for pregnant and nursing mothers as well
as young children FAO 2014 They are generally cooked boiled pan fried and eaten like spinach or put in soups and
sauces Moringa leaves are also eaten as a salad or dried and ground to make a very nutritious leaf powder Moringa leaf
powder is used to aid the restoration of infants suffering from malnutrition Moringa flowers are used to make tea added into
sauces or made into a paste and fried The young pods are prepared and taste like asparagus Older pods can be added to
sauces and curries in which their bitterness is appreciated FAO 2014 Radovich 2009 Orwa et al 2009 Bosch 2004 The
immature seeds can be cooked in many different ways while the mature seeds are roasted and eaten like peanuts Moringa
seeds contain about 30 40 of an edible oil ben oil which is used for salad dressing and cooking and can replace olive oil
Ben oil is resistant to rancidity and provides substantial amounts of oleic acid sterols and tocopherols FAO 2014 Yu et al
Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants but they have a moderate palatability They are used in
smallholder rabbit farming in several African countries Using moringa leaves for feeding poultry pigs and fish is feasible but
only in limited amounts due to the presence of fibre and antinutritional factors Moringa oil seed cake the by product of oil
extraction is not very palatable to livestock and mainly used as green manure or a flocculating agent in water purification
Moringa seeds appear to be toxic to rabbits
Industrial uses
Moringa oil has various industrial applications It is used in the perfume industry as it readily retains its fragrance and is not
prone to rancidity and in the manufacture of paints and lubricants Bosch 2004 Foidl et al 2001 Moringa oil has qualities
needed for a biodiesel feedstock Rashid et al 2008 At the time of writing December 2014 several projects to produce
biodiesel from moringa seeds were under way in Asia and Africa
The oil cake resulting from seed oil extraction contains about 1 of floculant proteins that bind mineral particles and organic
material in the purification of drinking water They are a natural alternative to the toxic alumine generally used for treating water
see Environmental impact below These proteins are also used to assist the sedimentation of fibres in the juice and beer
industries Moringa timber is soft and can only be used for light constructions but it can produce fibre for ropes and mats as
well as pulp for the paper industry Moringa bark is a source of dye Bosch 2004 Foidl et al 2001
Agricultural uses
Phytohormones extracted from moringa leaves have been shown to have a growth enhancing effect on various plants
including black gram peanut soybean sugarcane and coffee Spraying moringa leaf extract on leaves increased plant
production by 20 35 Foidl et al 2001
Medicinal uses
Moringa seeds contain pterygospermin a potent antibiotic and fungicide effective against Staphylococcus aureus and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa In the Philippines due to their high iron content moringa leaves are used in the treatment of
aenemia Moringa roots and bark are used in cardiac and circulatory problems Orwa et al 2009 Uses in ethnomedicine are
numerous and beyond the scope of this datasheet
Distribution
Moringa originated from the southern hills of the Himalayas and was introduced in many tropical and subtropical areas largely
by migrant Asian populations Radovich 2009 Bosch 2004 Moringa seed oil was valued in perfume manufacture in Ancient
Egypt Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire Orwa et al 2009 Bosch 2004 Moringa is now naturalized in most African
countries in the Caribbean Islands and in Central America Moringa is an important crop in India Ethiopia the Philippines and
the Sudan FAO 2014
Moringa grows from sea level up to an altitude of 600 m but it can be found up to 1000 m in the Himalayas up to 1350 m in
East Africa and as high as 2000 m in Zimbabwe Radovich 2009 Bosch 2004 Moringa does well where average
temperatures are high ranging from 25 to 30 C Low temperatures and frost can kill the plant back to ground level but
regrowth occurs quickly once the temperatures increase Moringa grows better where annual rainfall is about 1000 2000 mm
However it is tolerant of drought and survives where rainfall is as low as 400 mm though foliage production under such
conditions is reduced Moringa has a low tolerance of waterlogging It thrives in full sunlight Moringa does well on a wide
range of soils with pH ranging from 4 5 to 9 provided they are well drained Radovich 2009 Bosch 2004 Moringa has some
salt tolerance up to 3 dS m during germination and 8 dS m once well established Nouman et al 2014 Oliveira et al 2009
India is the main exporter of moringa canned leaves fresh fruits 1 2 million t in India oil and leaf powder Radovich 2009
In Africa leaves are the main product for local trade Bosch 2004
drilling management
Establishment and culture
Moringa can be grown in pure stands or in mixtures with many other tree species such as leucaena Leucaena leucocephala
and guacima Guazuma ulmifolia with vegetables species in alley cropping or with grasses or cereal crops New Forests
Project 2012 Petit Aldana et al 2010 Moringa is propagated from seeds or from cuttings When it is grown from seeds it can
be sown either directly or in containers Moringa should be sown at the beginning of the rainy season on an elevated seedbed
so that it is protected from waterlogging but it can benefit from soil moisture While propagation through seeds is well adapted
to foliage production propagation from cuttings is suitable for high grade fruit production and for root production Radovich
2009 Orwa et al 2009 Bosch 2004
The recommended spacing between moringa plants depends on their final use and geographic location Leaf production
increases with sowing or planting density Goss 2012 Foidl et al 2001 Spacings as small as 5 x 10 cm to 20 x 20 cm were
successfully used for leaf production in home gardening conditions Gadzirayi et al 2014a Radovich 2009 Amaglo et al
2007 Increasing the spacing 75 cm x 100 cm is recommended when moringa is sown on larger areas thereby reducing the
number of seeds required when cost is an important factor Radovich 2009 Patricio et al 2012 However in Nicaragua
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intensive production on large fields yielded up to 44 t ha of DM at the first cutting Foidl et al 2001 When moringa is
cultivated for pod production 2 5 x 2 5 m spacing is recommended Radovich 2009 This level of spacing is also suitable
when moringa is intercropped with another plant species
Harvest and yields
Moringa has an outstanding growth rate and can be harvested for foliage in less than 2 5 months Optimal cutting intervals
range from 15 to 75 days depending on local conditions Sultana et al 2014 Nouman et al 2014 Amaglo et al 2007
Reyes Sanchez et al 2006 Foidl et al 2001 Fodder yields are very variable and may range from 27 to 120 t ha of fresh
matter at the first cutting Amaglo et al 2007 Reyes Sanchez et al 2006 Foidl et al 2001 Up to 9 cuttings year can be
achieved Radovich 2009 Bosch 2004 Foidl et al 2001 Highest growth and forage yield are obtained under warm dry
conditions with some supplementary fertilizer and irrigation Radovich 2009 Plant management is important for leaf
production Pollarding and coppicing promote leafy regrowth and enhance leaf yield Orwa et al 2009
Moringa trees grown for pod production can be harvested 7 months after planting Pod yields are about 19 kg pods tree year
equivalent to 30 t pods ha year Radovich 2009 In Tanzania seed yield was reported to be about 3 3 kg tree year Bosch
2004 which corresponds to 1 to 1 5 t ha of oil Sengupta et al 1970
Environmental impact
Water purification
Moringa seed powder has antibacterial properties that make it useful as a natural clarifier for water purification systems and
fish ponds Aruna et al 2012 It is considered as a potential natural and inexpensive alternative to toxic alum but further
investigation is required since moringa seed powder may have negative effects when combined with chlorine treatment It was
found to promote bacteria regrowth after the first removal of the bacteria Egbuikwem et al 2013 Preston et al 2010
Toxicity and pond management
Moringa seed powder can be toxic to animals and particularly to fish This toxicity may be used in pond management to control
predators of cultured fish The median lethal concentration LC50 of moringa seed powder in common carp was 124 0 mg L
after 96 h and the sublethal concentration was 12 4 mg L Common carp exposed for 35 days at the latter concentration had
significant changes in all their blood parameters Kavitha et al 2012
datasheet citation
Heuz V Tran G Hassoun P Bastianelli D Lebas F 2016 Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia a programme by INRA
CIRAD AFZ and FAO http www feedipedia org node 124 Last updated on March 23 2016 10 44
English corrected by Tim Smith Animal Science consultant and H l ne Thiollet AFZ
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Description Nutritional aspects Nutritional tables References
Nutritional attributes
Feed categories
Moringa leaves
drilling plants Moringa leaves are usually considered as a source of protein However the protein content ranges from 15 to more than
Cereal and grass forages 30 DM as it depends on the stage of maturity and on the proportions of leaflets petioles and stems the latter being much
Legume forages poorer in protein Likewise the fibre content of moringa leaves reported in the literature is extremely variable with an ADF
Forage trees content ranging from 8 to more than 30 DM The lignin content is also variable from 2 to more than 10 DM Moringa
Aquatic plants leaves contain high levels of minerals about 10 DM particularly Ca and Fe They are also rich in a wide range of vitamins
Other forage plants caroten ascorbic acid vitamin B1 B6 and niacin Price 2007 Reyes Sanchez 2004 as well as flavonoids quercetin and
Plant products by products kaempferol which are known to be more potent antioxidants than ascorbic acid Yang et al 2006 Siddhuraju et al 2003
Cereal grains and by products Moringa leaves may thus be used as an antioxidant feed Makkar et al 2007 They have a relatively high concentration of
Legume seeds and by products lipids 5 6 up to 10 DM with an important proportion 33 to 45 of linolenic acid C18 3n 3 Moyo et al 2011 Olaofe
Oil plants and by products et al 2013
Fruits and by products
Roots tubers and by products Moringa seed cake
Sugar processing by products
Moringa seed cake defatted with a solvent is a high protein ingredient containing about 60 DM of protein with limited
Plant oils and fats
amounts of fibre NDF 9 DM and fat less than 1 Its amino acid profile is rich in sulphur containing amino acids
Other plant by products
methionine cystine 6 1 of protein but very poor in lysine less than 1 5 of protein
Feeds of animal origin
Animal by products
Dairy products by products
Potential constraints
Animal fats and oils
Moringa leaves
Other feeds Moringa leaves have been found free of trypsin inhibitors Saponin content was relatively high up to 8 Moringa leaves and
Minerals twigs contained limited amounts of cyanogenic glucosides Makkar et al 1997 The latter study did not detect glucosinolates
Other products in the leaves and only trace amounts in leaves and stems but later trials using a different method of analysis reported
significant amounts of glucosinolates Bennett et al 2003 Amaglo et al 2007 Bellostas et al 2010 Condensed tannins are
Latin names either absent Makkar et al 1997 or present in small amounts Bakhashwain et al 2010 Moyo et al 2011 Ethanol
extracted leaf meals were not reported to contain antinutritional factors Afuang et al 2003
Plant and animal families
Plant and animal species Moringa seed cake
Moringa seeds contain important amounts of glucosinolates Bennett et al 2003 Moringa seed cake was also found to
Resources contain significant amounts of glucosinolates and phytate 65 5 mol g and 4 1 respectively as well as saponins but in a
lesser concentration 1 4 than in the vegetative fractions Some haemagglutination activity was detected in the meal
Broadening horizons
Makkar et al 1997
Literature search
Image search ruminants
External resources Moringa leaves
Literature databases
Feeds and plants databases
Moringa leaves are a good source of digestible protein digestible OM and energy for ruminants and therefore a valuable
Organisations networks
protein supplement In addition they are a valuable mineral supplementation when minerals are limited or unavailable The
palatability of moringa forage has been reported to be only average Moringa leaves could successfully supplement low quality
forage diets and improve animal performance However when included in ruminants diets to replace concentrates
commercial sunflower meal soybean meal animal performance tended to be reduced
Moringa leaves are typically fed fresh to ruminants However they have been ensiled alone or in mixtures with Napier grass or
sugarcane to increase the nutritive value of the silage Mendieta Araica et al 2009
Palatability
The palatability of moringa is average Compared to several shrub and tree species in Cuba and Venezuela moringa leaves
were only moderately consumed by cattle sheep and goats Garcia et al 2008c Garcia et al 2008d Toral Perez et al
2008 However when used as sole supplement or included into a concentrate in diets for growing goats the DMI of Moringa
oleifera leaves was comparable or higher to that of leucaena Leucaena leucocephala or gliricidia Gliricidia sepium
Ndemanisho et al 2007 Asaolu et al 2012
Nutritive value
Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants Its protein and organic matter are readily digestible in the rumen
and or in the intestine Makkar et al 1997 Makkar et al 1996 Kakengi et al 2005 Ndemanisho et al 2007 Gutierrez et al
2012 However the available data are highly variable and reported in vitro and in vivo OM digestibilities range from 40 to
80 possibly due to the large variability in fibre content Moringa leaves and stems contain low amounts of tannins with no or
low amounts of condensed tannins Bakhashwain et al 2010 Murro et al 2003 Sarwatt et al 2002 Aregheore 2002
Makkar et al 1997 Makkar et al 1996 The levels of glucosinolates found in moringa leaves were not reported to impair
ruminant nutrition Bennett et al 2003 Amaglo et al 2010 However they contain saponins which may impair palatability
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Moringa leaves seem to promote rumen microbial protein synthesis due to the substantial contents of readily fermentable
nitrogen and energy Soliva et al 2005 Rumen in sacco DM degradability of the leaves ranging from 82 to 95 6 have been
reported Garcia et al 2008d Ndemanisho et al 2007 Sarwatt et al 2004 However lower values less than 70 were
observed in different animal species and different pore size of the nylon bags Gutierrez et al 2012 Garcia et al 2008a In
Nigeria including moringa leaf meal in ruminant diets reduced their metabolizable energy content OM digestibility and
production of short chain fatty acids Tona et al 2013
Dairy cattle
Moringa leaves have been assessed as a protein supplement for medium or low producing dairy cows fed low quality forages
Feeding moringa leaves had variable effects on DM intake and milk yield but did not change milk composition Moringa leaves
offered as the sole forage fresh or ensiled plus molasses gave the same results as a low quality forage supplemented with
concentrate
Fresh moringa leaves used as the sole forage fed to dairy cows negatively modified the smell and taste of milk and cheese
which could have been due to the presence of glucosinolates in the leaves Milk from cows fed ensiled moringa leaves did not
have off flavour and aroma possibly because the ensiling process destroyed most of the glucosinolates as observed with
other forages Mendieta Araica et al 2011a
Table 1 Utilisation of moringa leaves in dairy cattle
Country Animal Experiment Moringa Results Reference
Nicaragua Creole Moringa leaves supplemented to 0 2 or Hay DMI decreased 8 8 to 7 7 kg d when the amount of moringa Reyes
Reyna dairy cows fed with low quality 3kg DM d leaves increased DM digestibility increased 44 to 57 60 with 2 or Sanchez
394 kg Brachiaria brizantha hay and 3 kg moringa supplement milk yield increased from 3 1 to 5 kg et al
after 1 molasses when supplemented No changes in milk composition 2006
Tanzania Zebu x Moringa leaves compared to 0 to 1 7 kg Increasing levels of moringa leaves increased forage DM intake Sarwatt et
Friesian cottonseed meal as protein DM d 0 545 to 0 552 kg and milk yield 7 8 to 8 6 kg but did not change al 2004
347 kg supplement to dairy cows fed with milk composition The best ratio moringa cottonseed meal was
peak of fresh Napier grass 40 60
Nicaragua Brown Fresh or ensiled moringa leaves ad libitum DMI of fresh 11 2 kg DM or ensiled 11 3 kg DM moringa leaves Mendieta
Swiss plus 1 kg molasses compared to was higher silage or equal fresh to Napier grass 11 1 kg DM Araica et
456 kg Napier grass 60 plus Diet DM digestibility with fresh moringa leaves 69 was similar to al 2011a
4th week concentrate 40 that of the Napier diet 64 but lower than with ensiled 76
of moringa leaves No milk yield 13 6 13 9 kg d and milk composition
lactation differences
Nicaragua Brown Moringa leaf meal replaced 20 of Replacing soybean meal with moringa leaf meal did not change Mendieta
Swiss soybean meal in a concentrate concentrate forage DMI or diet DM digestibility Milk yield was lower 12 3 kg vs Araica et
467 kg 20 soybean meal distributed to 13 2 kg but milk composition was unchanged al 2011b
4th week dairy cows fed with 60 low
of quality forage and 40
lactation concentrate
Beef cattle
In growing steers moringa leaves used as the sole concentrate and fed at 0 59 BW resulted in a gain of 380 g d Reyes
Sanchez et al 2006 When moringa leaves replaced a commercial concentrate in growing steers pure N Dama or N Dama x
Jersey crossbred fed groundnut hay they depressed DM intake but increased the daily weight gain of both breeds 625 vs
458 g d N Dama and 750 vs 625 g d crossbred respectively Nouala et al 2009
Moringa leaves totally replaced cottonseed cake for growing lambs fed on low quality hay Hay intake 355 vs 324 g DM DM
digestibility 70 vs 60 and daily weight gain 62 vs 52 g d were all increased Murro et al 2003
Feeding growing goats with moringa leaves as the sole forage or combined with other legume tree leaves in the diet had no
effect on total DM intake 278 289 g d and diet digestibility 76 77 Asaolu et al 2011 Moringa leaves included at up to
50 as the sole supplement in diets based on low quality forage increased daily weight gain and diet digestibility Aregheore
2002 Moringa leaves offered to growing goats fed low quality forage or cassava peels to replace cottonseed cake sunflower
seed cake or a commercial concentrate 250 g d had no effect on daily weight gain Ndemanisho et al 2007 Sarwatt et al
2002 Asaolu et al 2012 Moringa leaves replaced a commercial concentrate 250 g d in a diet based on cassava peels
without modifying daily gain 21 g d which was higher than with other legume tree leaves Asaolu et al 2012
Supplementing growing goats fed on grass hay and wheat bran with moringa leaf meal instead of sunflower cake resulted in
higher meat quality physical and chemical characteristics together with organoleptic quality parameters including higher first
bite aroma flavour and juiciness scores Moyo et al 2014
Table 2 Use of Moringa leaves in goats
Country Animal Experiment Moringa Results Reference
Nigeria West Moringa leaves compared to 250 g d Higher cassava DMI with concentrate 195 g d than with moringa Asaolu et
African commercial concentrate gliricidia 188 g d both and leucaena 183 g d DMI of moringa leaves al 2012
Dwarf gliricidia and leucaena was higher than that of other species 123 g d but lower than that with
goats male leaves offered as sole concentrate 160 g d Daily gain with moringa was similar to that of
female supplement with cassava concentrate 20 8 vs 21 4 g d but higher than from other species 15
7 5 kg peel g d
Samoa Anglo Increasing levels of moringa 20 to 80 No effects on total DMI 20 to 50 moringa leaves gave higher daily gain Aregheore
islands Nubian x leaves with low quality in the 86 to 79 g d Diet DM and CP digestibility increased with 20 and 50 2002
local Fiji forage mixture moringa leaves 58 57 vs 58 and 68 70 vs 55 respectively
9 5 kg when compared to the diet without moringa leaves
Tanzania Local Moringa leaves compared to 46 No difference in DMI and daily gain with moringa compared to other So
Tanzania x other shrubs and included moringa shrubs but higher daily gain with cottonseed cake 33 vs 22 25 g d manisho et
Norwegian into a concentrate fed as leaves into al 2007
Landrace supplement to a maize the
male stover based diet concentrate
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Tanzania East Replacement of sunflower 0 to 100 Full substitution of sunflower meal with moringa leaves increased total Sarwatt et
African meal with moringa leaves in replacement DMI 311 vs 258 g d and DM digestibility 59 6 vs 50 6 but did not al 2002
male 10 concentrate offered with low of SSC affect daily gain 13 16 g d
kg nutritive value hay
Moringa seed cake
In vitro assessment by the gas production method has shown that moringa seed cake may be a better source of digestible
protein than moringa leaves Kakengi et al 2005 In Barbarine male lambs 4 months 26 kg increasing the amount of
defatted moringa seed meal 0 2 4 or 6 g d in a diet based on oat vetch hay and soybean meal 100 g d did not change hay
DMI 1kg or DM digestibility 658 Daily gain was higher with 4 g d of defatted moringa seed meal compared to the control
diet 97 vs 64 g d Ben Salem et al 2009
Moringa leaves extracts
Extracts of moringa leaves obtained with aqueous maceration had in vitro anthelmintic properties on gastrointestinal strongyles
common in sheep A dose of 50 mg mL of extract reduced egg hatching by 43 to 52 in strongyles and caused 86 90
mortality of larvae Larvae migration was reduced by 97 at dose rates from 12 5 to 50 mg mL Puerto Abreu et al 2014
Similar results were observed on the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats where a moringa leaves extract
obtained by infusion and included at 5 mg ml reduced hatching by 90 98 and resulted in 51 70 mortality of larvae Tayo et
Information about the nutritive value of moringa leaves and seed cake in pig feeding is scarce In vitro estimations showed that
moringa leaves could be valuable in pig feeding and may have a good energy value though they do not completely meet the
pig s nutritional requirements Kambashi et al 2014 Feeding trials with moringa leaf meal have been only partly successful
as high inclusion rates were found detrimental to performance In Nicaragua including up to 30 moringa leaf meal in diets for
growing pig as part substitution for a commercial concentrate decreased pig performance and depressed feed conversion ratio
but depending on feed costs it could have been an economic option Perez et al 2001 In the Philippines moringa leaf meal
included at 10 partially replacing a commercial concentrate for backyard growing pigs did not hamper performance Acda
et al 2010
There has been a lot of research on the potential of moringa leaf meal dried and ground moringa leaves as an alternative
feed ingredient for poultry due to the rising interest in moringa and because the leaves have a high protein content However
the digestibility of diets containing moringa leaf meal was found to be lower than that of control diets especially for crude
protein and therefore amino acids which was partly due to the fibre content which also limits its energy value in poultry
Abou Elezz et al 2012b
While some literature reviews have been quite optimistic Moreki et al 2014 Gadzirayi et al 2014b most studies show that
the use of moringa leaf meal in broiler diets results in decreased performance Inclusion rates as low as 5 7 5 have reduced
growth by 15 Zanu et al 2012 Olugbemi et al 2010a Oludoyi et al 2012 Gakuya et al 2014 Feed intake is generally
not much affected which leads to a reduction in feed efficiency The depression in growth is linked by some to unbalanced
diets in other cases it appears to be a direct effect of moringa However this detrimental effect of moringa is not constant and
in some trials performance was similar to but seldom higher than those obtained with control diets even with 7 5 to 10
moringa leaf meal Onu et al 2011 Foluke et al 2013 El Tazi 2014 Banjo 2012 However performance always
deteriorates when moringal leaf meal is included at 20 or more in the diet Tesfaye et al 2013 Jiya et al 2014 Gakuya et
al 2014 The general recommendation is to avoid the use of moringa leaf meal in intensive broiler production as the risk of a
loss in performance is high Very low levels less than 2 need testing for potential probiotic effects
Slow growing or indigenous chickens
In slow growing chickens up to 10 moringa leaf meal maintained growth performance in some studies but it decreased at
higher levels Melesse et al 2011 Gadzirayi et al 2012 Chongwe 2011 Other studies observed reduced growth with as
little as 5 moringa in the diet Gadzirayi et al 2014a A cost benefit analysis is required on a per case basis as including
moringa leaf meal may reduce the need to purchase high priced ingredients
In layers moringa leaf meal generally lowers laying performance and feed efficiency at high inclusion rates 15 20 Kakengi
et al 2007 but also sometimes at lower 5 to 7 5 levels Ebenebe et al 2013 Olugbemi et al 2010b However there are
some reports of performance being maintained at a 10 inclusion rate Kakengi et al 2007 and improved at 2 5 Ebenebe
et al 2013 In moderately productive layers fresh moringa leaves added to ad libitum commercial feed improved laying
performance but results were negative when the quantity of commercial feed was reduced Abou Elezz et al 2012a The
recommendation is to use moringa leaf meal carefully in layer feeds and at no more than 5 of the diet
Moringa as a feed additive
Moringa leaf meal and moringa leaf extracts because of their active compounds have been tested in poultry as feed additives
for their potential benefits on poultry health and meat or egg quality However there can be negative affects on digestion and
metabolic processes Some results showed a positive effect of moringa extracts and at low levels below 2 moringa leaf
meal Portugaliza et al 2012 David et al 2012 Teteh et al 2013 No major toxicity problems have been reported Ashong
et al 2011 The effect of moringa on serum and egg cholesterol levels is disputed as some studies report a decrease in
cholesterol e g Ashong et al 2011 and others an increase e g Gakuya et al 2014 As a consequence moringa leaf meal
cannot be used reliably to regulate cholesterol levels in poultry products
Fresh moringa leaves
Fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera tend to be rich in protein with a moderate content of fibre In Benin and Ghana they are used
by smallholder rabbit farmers as a traditional nutritive forage which is particularly valuable in the dry season when other
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forages are not available Adoukonou 2014 personal communication Osei et al 2012 In Nigeria moringa leaves are used
in rabbit research as a standard forage fed with concentrates Ola et al 2013 Fresh moringa leaves given to breeding rabbit
does at 2 of body weight with a concentrate were found as efficient as fresh Centrosema pubescens control and Tephrosia
candida Odeyinka et al 2008 Ola et al 2012 Fresh moringa leaves offered ad libitum with a concentrate to growing
rabbits were slightly less palatable 17 of daily intake than Leucaena leucocephala and Brosimum alicastrum foliages 22
and 27 of daily intake respectively Safwat et al 2014a
Because rabbits consume both the leaves and the tender stems Osei et al 2012 they can be used efficiently for the routine
pruning recommended to maximise forage production from moringa trees Palada et al 2003
Moringa leaf meal
Since the late 2000s many trials have assessed the nutritive value of moringa leaf meal for growing rabbits as a potential
replacement for soybean meal Nuhu 2010 Ewuola et al 2012a Odetola et al 2012 Owen et al 2013 groundnut cake
Adeniji et al 2012 Alemede et al 2014 wheat offal Vantsawa et al 2014 or maize bran plus soybean meal Abu et al
2013 Inclusion rates in such diets ranged between 10 and 15 These trials generally concluded that moringa leaf meal can
be used safely in rabbit feeding with no reduction in growth rate feed efficiency slaughter yield or blood parameters
However moringa leaf meal has been linked to a slight but significant reduction of serum glucose and serum cholesterol
concentration Rajeshwari et al 2008 Ewuola et al 2012b In some trials moringa leaf meal was included successfully at
30 Dahouda et al 2013 and up to 40 of the diet Safwat et al 2014b The main limit to the use of moringa leaf meal for
feeding growing rabbits is the required nutritional balance of the diets rather than the product itself
In breeding rabbits moringa leaf meal was fed to males at 15 Abu et al 2013 and to breeding does at 7 2 in substitution
for soybean meal Ayodele et al 2014 When moringa leaf meal replaced 20 of soybean meal protein the breeding
performance of rabbit does was significantly better than that allowed by the control diet Ayodele et al 2014
While moringa leaf meal is an efficient source of dietary protein it is deficient in sulphur containing amino acids providing only
50 to 80 of requirements and lysine In experiments with protein rich moringa leaf meal the faecal protein digestibility was
found to be high 70 71 Adeniji et al 2012 or increased in presence of moringa e g from 65 up to 80 Ewuola et al
2012a Nuhu 2010 This positive effect of moringa leaf meal on protein and DM digestibility was also observed at moderate
inclusion rates as low as 3 Djakalia et al 2011 However when moringa leaf meal contained less protein 20 23 and
more fibre NDF 31 ADF 26 Safwat et al 2014b the calculated protein digestibility was only about 50 Lebas 2013
Likewise the digestible energy content of moringa leaf meal may be estimated from 10 6 to 13 8 MJ kg DM for low protein and
high protein meals respectively Lebas 2013 Therefore it is recommended that the composition and nutritional value of
moringa leaf meal is assessed on a per case basis before it is used in balanced rabbit diets
The relatively high energy content of moringa leaf meal is partly due to its low fibre content but also to its unusually high
concentration of lipids The high proportion of linolenic acid may help to improve meat composition as well as the health
status of rabbits Colin et al 2012
Moringa leaves and their extracts may have an immunomodulating effect Aqueous extracts of moringa leaves fed for 30 days
to male rabbits 5 ml d head increased CD4 cells blood insulin concentration and enhanced enzymatic activity Isitua et al
2013 Inclusion of moringa leaves in the diets of growing rabbits had an antihyperglycemic or hypoglycemic effect and an
hypocholesterolemic activity Rajeshwari et al 2008
Moringa seeds
Literature on the use of moringa seeds in rabbit feeding is nonexistent at the time of writing December 2014 In Benin
growing rabbits fed a compound diet containing 10 moringa seeds had a 50 mortality rate within the first 10 days It is not
known whether this was due to an intrinsic toxicity of moringa seeds which contain glucosinolates or to a post harvest
contamination as the seeds had been stored for several months before use Adoukonou 2014 personal communication In
support of the toxicity hypothesis it should be noted that moringa seeds fed to growing rats resulted in low feed intakes
impaired growth and physiological troubles Oliveira et al 1999 Therefore the use of moringa seeds in rabbits feeding
cannot be recommended until trials demonstrate its safety
Moringa leaf meal is rich in protein and has been tested in various fish species as a potential replacement for fish meal
However feeding trials show that only limited amounts of moringa leaf meal can be safely used in fish diets which is probably
due to the presence of phenolics saponins phytic acid and other metabolites with antinutritional effects in fish Richter et al
2003 Egwuy et al 2013
Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
Moringa leaf meal can be included in Nile tilapia diets in limited amounts only up to 8 10 of the diet Abo State et al 2014
Yuangsoi et al 2011 Richter et al 2003 Afuang et al 2003 In a diet where moringa leaves were included at 10 to
provide supplementary protein protein digestibility was reported to range from 68 to 75 and daily weight gain was
increased by 30 Yuangsoi et al 2011 Inclusion levels higher than 10 resulted in lower specific growth rate lower
nutrient utilization and poorer carcass composition Abo State et al 2014 Including moringa leaf meal at 12 as fed
replacing 15 of soybean protein significantly reduced DM digestibility and a 24 inclusion rate reduced all nutrient
digestibilities Kasiga et al 2014
Methanol extracted leaf meal containing less saponins and phenolics was included at up to 30 in the diets for tilapia
fingerlings without hindering fish performance but carcass protein was reduced Afuang et al 2003 Water extracted leaf
meal included at 15 of the diet had deleterious effects on feed intake feed utilization and fish performance The product was
still highly unpalatable to fish who spat out the feed pellets Madalla 2008 Different moringa leaf extracts tannin reduced
saponin reduced and saponin enriched were all shown to reduce fish performance Dongmeza et al 2006
Redbreast tilapia Coptodon rendalli
Moringa leaf meal replaced up to 25 of fish meal in the diets of redbreast tilapia Coptodon rendalli without compromising
fish growth but resulted in hepatocyte degradation and enterocyte irritation and increased feed costs Hlophe et al 2014
African catfish Clarias gariepinus
Moringa leaf meal included at 12 5 of the diet for African catfish fingerlings replaced groundnut cake without hampering fish
performance Olaniyi et al 2013 Up to 20 moringa leaf meal inclusion did not affect fish performance feed conversion ratio
and protein efficiency but higher rates increased serum enzymes which suggested some cellular damage Ozovehe 2013
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Basa fish Pangasius bocourti
Moringa seed cake replaced 50 of soybean meal 8 5 of the diet in basa fish diets based on fish meal and soybean meal
Higher rates resulted in poorer fish performance a reduced feed conversion ratio and lower protein efficiency No signs of
pathology were observed at any inclusion level Yuangsoi et al 2014
Common carp Cyprinus carpio
In carp moringa leaf meal was included at 8 8 of the diet replacing 20 of the soybean meal protein without compromising
protein digestibility fish growth and feed conversion ratio and with no deleterious effects on fish health Yuangsoi et al 2012
Moringa extracts as pond management tool
Moringa seeds and bark contain several chemical substances that are potentially useful for pond management
Moringa seeds contain oleanic acid and ursolic acid which are known to have antifertility properties They can be used to
control early undesirable fish reproduction in fish ponds Ampofo Yeboah et al 2013
Moringa root bark extracts contain ichthyotoxic substances that can be used to manage predator populations in an
environment friendly manner in fish ponds prior to stocking desirable fish species Adesina et al 2011 Adesina et al
Moringa seed powder contains a natural floculating agent that can replace toxic alum to remove organic matter from pond
water However it has been shown to result in pathologic lesions in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Ayotunde et al
datasheet citation
Heuz V Tran G Hassoun P Bastianelli D Lebas F 2016 Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia a programme by INRA
CIRAD AFZ and FAO http www feedipedia org node 124 Last updated on March 23 2016 10 44
English corrected by Tim Smith Animal Science consultant and H l ne Thiollet AFZ
Image credits
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the future Forest Kim Starr Lionel Allorge
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Moringa Moringa oleifera
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Description Nutritional aspects Nutritional tables References
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value
Feed categories
Moringa Moringa oleifera leaves fresh Moringa Moringa oleifera leaves dried Moringa Moringa oleifera pods
Moringa Moringa oleifera oil meal solvent extracted
drilling plants
Cereal and grass forages Avg average or predicted value SD standard deviation Min minimum value Max maximum value Nb number of values
Legume forages samples used
Forage trees
Aquatic plants Moringa Moringa oleifera leaves fresh
Other forage plants
Plant products by products
Cereal grains and by products
Legume seeds and by products
Oil plants and by products
Fruits and by products
Roots tubers and by products
Main analysis Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Sugar processing by products Dry matter as fed 26 2 8 6 16 4 46 1 16
Plant oils and fats Crude protein DM 24 3 4 3 17 1 29 7 22
Other plant by products
Crude fibre DM 13 6 4 5 8 0 19 3 10
Feeds of animal origin
NDF DM 28 3 9 4 16 2 45 3 18
Animal by products
Dairy products by products ADF DM 19 3 7 4 11 2 31 0 17
Animal fats and oils Lignin DM 7 0 3 3 1 8 12 0 16
Insects Ether extract DM 5 4 1 2 2 2 7 0 18
Other feeds
Ash DM 10 3 1 8 7 5 13 3 21
Other products
Gross energy MJ kg DM 18 6 0 8 17 8 19 4 3
Latin names Minerals Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Calcium g kg DM 26 5 4 2 20 0 32 2 14
Plant and animal families
Phosphorus g kg DM 3 1 0 8 2 0 4 3 16
Plant and animal species
Potassium g kg DM 19 1 1 8 15 9 20 2 5
Resources Sodium g kg DM 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 3 5
Magnesium g kg DM 5 0 1 1 2 7 5 7 6
Broadening horizons
Manganese mg kg DM 45 16 21 70 6
Literature search
Zinc mg kg DM 23 3 20 26 6
Image search
Copper mg kg DM 9 1 7 10 6
External resources Iron mg kg DM four hundred ninety seven 177 182 603 5
Literature databases
Feeds and plants databases Amino acids Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Organisations networks
Alanine protein 6 3 0 8 5 3 7 3 4
Arginine protein 5 7 0 4 5 1 6 2 4
Aspartic acid protein 9 6 0 7 8 8 10 1 3
Cystine protein 1 4 0 3 1 2 1 8 4
Glutamic acid protein 11 5 1 2 10 2 12 7 4
wistaria protein 4 8 0 5 4 4 5 5 5
Histidine protein 2 3 0 5 1 9 3 0 4
Isoleucine protein 4 1 0 4 3 8 4 6 6
Leucine protein 7 7 0 9 6 2 8 7 6
Lysine protein 4 8 0 7 3 8 5 6 6
Methionine protein 1 5 0 3 1 1 2 0 5
Phenylalanine protein 5 9 0 5 5 1 6 6 6
Proline protein 4 8 0 5 4 4 5 4 4
Serine protein 4 3 0 4 4 0 4 7 4
Threonine protein 4 4 0 2 4 1 4 7 6
Tryptophan protein 2 1 1
Tyrosine protein 3 8 3 7 3 9 2
Valine protein 5 0 0 4 4 8 5 7 5
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Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Tannins eq tannic acid g kg DM 16 1 1 9 14 0 17 8 3
Tannins condensed eq catechin g kg DM 0 8 0 0 1 5 2
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
OM digestibility ruminants gas production 73 1
Energy digestibility ruminants 71 7
OF ruminants MJ kg DM 13 3
ME ruminants MJ kg DM 10 6
ME ruminants gas production MJ kg DM 9 4 1
Nitrogen digestibility ruminants 71 0 1
The asterisk indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation
References
Aregheore 2002 Babiker 2012 Bakhashwain et al 2010 Busson 1963 Garcia et al 2008 Kambashi et al 2014 Ly et
al 2001 Makkar et al 1996 Malik et al 1967 Melesse et al 2012 Mendieta Araica et al 2009 Mendieta Araica and
al 2011 Nuhu 2010 Odetola et al 2012 Reyes Sanchez et al 2006 Safwat et al 2014 Sen 1938 Soliva et al 2005
Sultana et al 2014
Last updated on 12 12 2014 16 36 55
Moringa Moringa oleifera leaves dried
Main analysis Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Dry matter as fed 91 2 2 3 86 0 94 6 32
Crude protein DM 26 8 3 6 19 5 33 5 35
Crude fibre DM 12 2 4 7 7 1 22 5 22
NDF DM 22 7 7 1 12 9 34 8 17
ADF DM 15 3 7 7 7 9 31 4 15
Lignin DM 3 4 2 6 1 1 8 1 7
Ether extract DM 6 4 1 6 4 1 10 6 20
Ether extract HCl hydrolysis DM 6 6 1
Ash DM 10 8 2 3 7 4 15 0 thirty
Total sugars DM 11 0 1
Gross energy MJ kg DM 18 8 0 7 18 3 19 9 4
Minerals Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Calcium g kg DM 25 6 10 0 11 0 41 4 14
Phosphorus g kg DM 3 3 0 6 2 4 4 4 12
Potassium g kg DM 14 6 2 3 10 5 16 6 6
Sodium g kg DM 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 5 3
Magnesium g kg DM 4 1 1 4 2 7 5 5 4
Manganese mg kg DM 89 27 57 122 4
Zinc mg kg DM 33 13 17 50 6
Copper mg kg DM 11 6 6 20 6
Iron mg kg DM 262 193 37 542 5
Amino acids Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Alanine protein 6 8 6 2 7 3 2
Arginine protein 5 7 0 5 4 8 6 2 6
Aspartic acid protein 9 5 0 6 8 8 10 1 3
Cystine protein 1 3 0 2 1 1 1 5 3
Glutamic acid protein 11 1 0 7 10 2 11 6 3
wistaria protein 4 9 0 7 3 9 5 5 4
Histidine protein 2 4 0 5 1 8 3 0 7
Isoleucine protein 3 9 0 4 3 6 4 5 5
Leucine protein 7 3 0 9 6 4 8 7 7
Lysine protein 5 0 0 5 4 4 5 6 6
Methionine protein 1 5 0 4 1 0 2 0 6
Phenylalanine protein 5 3 0 8 4 3 6 2 6
Proline protein 4 5 0 7 3 9 5 4 4
Serine protein 4 0 0 4 3 6 4 5 4
Threonine protein 4 2 0 7 3 2 5 0 6
Tryptophan protein 2 2 0 5 1 6 2 8 4
Tyrosine protein 3 3 0 5 2 9 3 9 3
Valine protein 4 9 0 5 4 4 5 7 6
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Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Tannins eq tannic acid g kg DM 21 5 28 8 5 0 72 6 5
Tannins condensed eq catechin g kg DM 2 0 1 8 0 0 3 4 3
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
OM digestibility ruminants 79 5 1
OM digestibility ruminants gas production 52 9 41 58 3
Energy digestibility ruminants 78 1
OF ruminants MJ kg DM 14 7
ME ruminants MJ kg DM 11 6
ME ruminants gas production MJ kg DM 6 4 4 3 8 4 2
Nitrogen digestibility ruminants 89 4 1
The asterisk indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation
References
Abo State et al 2014 Abu Elezz et al 2012 Alemede et al 2014 Alikwe et al 2013 Al Masry 2003 Asaolu and al
2011 Chongwe 2011 CIRAD 2008 Gadzirayi et al 2012 Hlophe et al 2014 Ijarotimi et al 2013 Kakengi et al 2005
Kakengi et al 2007 Kasiga et al 2014 Madalla 2008 Makkar et al 1997 Mendieta Araica and al 2011 Moyo and al
2011 Moyo et al 2014 Murro et al 2003 Mutayoba and al 2011 Ndemanisho et al 2006 Njidda et al 2010 Nouala
et al 2009 Odeyinka et al 2008 Olugbemi et al 2010 Olugbemi et al 2010 Reyes et al 2003 Richter et al 2003
Safwat et al 2014 Sarwatt et al 2002 Sarwatt et al 2004 Tesfaye et al 2013 Zanu et al 2012
Last updated on 12 12 2014 16 47 57
Moringa Moringa oleifera pods
Main analysis Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Dry matter as fed 10 7 1
Crude protein DM 17 6 2 7 15 8 20 7 3
Crude fibre DM 33 5 5 7 27 0 37 5 3
NDF DM 52 6 52 1 53 1 2
ADF DM 49 1 49 0 49 2 2
Lignin DM 10 2 10 0 10 3 2
Ether extract DM 3 5 2 1 1 0 4 9 3
Ash DM 9 7 0 7 8 9 10 2 3
Gross energy MJ kg DM 18 7
Minerals Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Calcium g kg DM 2 7 2 7 2 8 2
Phosphorus g kg DM 5 4 5 3 5 5 2
Potassium g kg DM 36 7 35 8 37 7 2
Sodium g kg DM 0 4 0 4 0 4 2
Magnesium g kg DM 2 6 2 6 2 6 2
Manganese mg kg DM 19 18 20 2
Zinc mg kg DM thirty 29 31 2
Copper mg kg DM 9 9 9 2
Iron mg kg DM 510 484 537 2
Amino acids Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Alanine protein 4 5 4 5 4 5 2
Arginine protein 8 5 8 5 8 5 2
Aspartic acid protein 6 9 6 9 7 0 2
Cystine protein 2 5 2 4 2 5 2
Glutamic acid protein 15 2 15 1 15 2 2
wistaria protein 4 3 4 3 4 3 2
Isoleucine protein 2 9 2 9 3 0 2
Leucine protein 5 6 5 6 5 6 2
Lysine protein 3 3 3 2 3 3 2
Methionine protein 1 5 1 5 1 5 2
Phenylalanine protein 3 6 3 6 3 7 2
Proline protein 4 5 4 4 4 6 2
Serine protein 3 7 3 6 3 7 2
Threonine protein 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
Valine protein 3 7 3 7 3 7 2
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Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
OM digestibility ruminants gas production 51 1
Energy digestibility ruminants 48 2
OF ruminants MJ kg DM 9 0
ME ruminants MJ kg DM 7 1
ME ruminants gas production MJ kg DM 6 5 1
The asterisk indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation
References
Kandiah et al 1938 Melesse et al 2012
Last updated on 12 12 2014 16 46 20
Moringa Moringa oleifera oil meal solvent extracted
Main analysis Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Crude protein DM 60 3 59 2 61 4 2
NDF DM 9 4 8 2 10 5 2
ADF DM 6 7 1
Lignin DM 2 5 1
Ether extract DM 0 4 1
Ash DM 5 7 5 7 5 8 2
Gross energy MJ kg DM 19 4 1
Minerals Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Calcium g kg DM 3 8 1
Phosphorus g kg DM 16 6 1
Potassium g kg DM 17 3 1
Sodium g kg DM 7 4 1
Magnesium g kg DM 4 4 1
Manganese mg kg DM 12 1
Zinc mg kg DM 66 1
Copper mg kg DM 36 1
Iron mg kg DM 67 1
Amino acids Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Alanine protein 3 8 1
Arginine protein 11 6 1
Aspartic acid protein 4 0 1
Cystine protein 4 2 1
Glutamic acid protein 19 4 1
wistaria protein 4 9 1
Histidine protein 2 3 1
Isoleucine protein 3 1 1
Leucine protein 5 3 1
Lysine protein 1 5 1
Methionine protein 1 9 1
Phenylalanine protein 4 0 1
Proline protein 5 5 1
Serine protein 2 8 1
Threonine protein 2 3 1
Tyrosine protein 1 5 1
Valine protein 3 5 1
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
Tannins eq tannic acid g kg DM 0 0 1
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD me Max Nb
OM digestibility ruminants gas production 60 1
ME ruminants gas production MJ kg DM 7 6 1
The asterisk indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation
References
Ben Salem et al 2009 Makkar et al 1997
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Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Last updated on 12 12 2014 16 55 00
datasheet citation
Heuz V Tran G Hassoun P Bastianelli D Lebas F 2016 Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia a programme by INRA
CIRAD AFZ and FAO http www feedipedia org node 124 Last updated on March 23 2016 10 44
English corrected by Tim Smith Animal Science consultant and H l ne Thiollet AFZ
Image credits
Crops for the future Forest Kim Starr Forest Kim Starr Forest Kim Starr Forest Kim Starr Crops for
the future Forest Kim Starr Lionel Allorge
Feedipedia Animal Feed Resources Information System INRA CIRAD AFZ and FAO 2012 2016 Copyright Disclaimer Editor login
Texte d origine
Proposer une meilleure traduction
http www feedipedia org node 124 09 12 2016 15 04 26
Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Feedipedia Animal feed resources
information system
Home About Feedipedia Team Partners Get involved Contact us
Search Feedipedia Search
Moringa Moringa oleifera
Automatic translation
Description Nutritional aspects Nutritional tables References
References
Feed categories
Abdulkarim S M Long K Lai O M Muhammad S K S Ghazali H M 2005 Some physico chemical properties
All feeds of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods Food Chem 93 2 253 263
drilling plants Abo State H Hammouda Y El Nadi A AboZaid H 2014 Evaluation of feeding raw moringa Moringa oleifera
Cereal and grass forages Lam leaves meal in Nile tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus diets Global Vet 13 1 105 111
Legume forages
Abou Elezz F M K Sarmiento Franco L Santos Ricalde R Solorio Sanchez J 2012 The nutritional effect of
Forage trees
Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality Trop Anim
Aquatic plants
Health Prod 44 5 1035 1040
Other forage plants
Plant products by products Abou Elezz F M K Sarmiento Franco L Santos Ricalde R Solorio Sanchez J 2012 Apparent digestibility of
Cereal grains and by products Rhode Island Red hen diets containing Leucaena leucocephala and Moringa oleifera leaf meals Trop Subtrop
Legume seeds and by products Agroecosyst 15 2 199 206
Oil plants and by products Abu A H Ahemen T Ikpechukwu P 2013 Testicular morphometry and sperm quality of rabbit bucks fed graded
Fruits and by products levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal Agrosearch 13 49 56
Roots tubers and by products Acda S P Masilungan H G D Moog B A 2010 Partial substitution of commercial swine feeds with malunggay
Sugar processing by products Moringa oleifera leaf meal under backyard conditions Philippine J Vet Anim Sci 36 2 137 146
Plant oils and fats
Adeniji A A Lawa M 2012 Effects of replacing groundnut cake with Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diets of grower
Other plant by products
rabbits Int J Mol Vet Res 2 3 8 13
Feeds of animal origin
Adesina B T Omitoyin B O 2011 Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam fresh root bark extract as an organic piscicide
Animal by products
in aquaculture pond management Egyptian J Biol 13 8 13
Dairy products by products
Animal fats and oils Adesina BT Oguntuga OA Raimi questionable Ogunsola JB 2013 Guide to large scale production of Moringa
Insects oleifera Lam For Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Nigeria prospects and Challenges Agrosearch 13 3 186
Other feeds 194
Minerals Adesina B T Omitoyin B O Oguntuga O A 2013 Preliminary toxicological screening of ichthyotoxic compound of
Other products Moringa oleifera Lam hot ethanolic extract to freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus L fingerlings Agrosearch 13 3
Latin names Adoukonou J 2014 seed operation test of Moringa oleifera in feed for fattening rabbits Unpublished
Afuang W Siddhuraju P Becker K 2003 Comparative nutritional evaluation of raw methanol extracted residues
Plant and animal families
and methanol extracts of Moringa Moringa oleifera Lam leaves on growth performance and feed utilization in Nile
Plant and animal species tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L Aquaculture Res 34 13 1147 1159
Al Masri M R 2003 An in vitro evaluation of some unconventional ruminant feeds in terms of the organic matter
Resources digestibility energy and microbial biomass Trop Anim Health Prod 35 2 155 167
Broadening horizons Alemede I C Onyeji E A Tsado D N Shiawoya E L 2014 Reproductive response of rabbit does to diets
Literature search
containing varying levels of horseradish Moringa oleifera leaf meal J Biol Agric Healthcare 4 19 62 68
Image search Alikwe P C N Omotosho M S 2013 An evaluation of the proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa
oleifera leaf meal as potential feedstuff for non ruminant livestock Agrosearch 13 1 17 28
External resources Amaglo N K Timpo G M Ellis W O Bennett R N 2007 Effect of spacing and harvest frequency on the growth
Literature databases and leaf yield of moringa Moringa oleifera Lam a leafy vegetable crop Ghana J Hort 6 33 40
Feeds and plants databases Amaglo N K Bennett R N Lo Curto R B Rosa E A S Lo Turco V Giuffrida A Lo Curto A Crea F Timpo
Organisations networks G M 2010 Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera
Books L grown in Ghana Food Chem 122 4 1047 1054
Journals Ampofo Yeboah A Lambrechts H Brink D Hiten F Afriyie Gyawu E 2013 Analysis of oleanolic acid and
ursolic acid potential antifertility agents in Moringa Moringa oleifera seed J Agric Sci Technol A 3 12 989 999
Aregheore E M 2002 Intake and digestibility of Moringa oleifera batiki grass mixtures by growing goats Small Rum
Res 46 1 23 28
Aruna M Srilatha N 2012 Water clarification using Moringa oleifera Lam seed as a natural coagulant Current
Biotica 5 4 472 486
Asaolu VO Odeyinka SM Akinbamijo OO Sodeinde FG 2010 Effects of Moringa and bamboo leaves on groundnut
hay utilization by West African dwarf goats Livest Res Rural Dev 22 1
Asaolu VO Binuomote RT Office Oyelami OS Kolapo NO 2011 utilization of Moringa oleifera fodder combinations
with Leucaena leucephala and gamal sepium fodders by West African dwarf goats Int J buyers Res 6 8 607 619
Asaolu V Binuomote R Office J Aderinola O Oyelami O 2012 Intake and growth performance of West African
dwarf Goats fed Moringa oleifera gamal sepium and Leucaena leucocephala dried leaves as supplements to cassava
peels J Biol Buyers Health Care 2 10 76 88
Ashong J O Brown D L 2011 Safety and efficacy of Moringa oleifera powder for growing poultry J Anim Sci 89
Suppl 1 84 M220
Ayodele A E Adeola J R Mayowa A T 2014 Reproductive performance of rabbit does fed graded levels of
Moringa oleifera leaf meal based diet Int J Sci 3 3 50 53
Related to EO Fagbenro OA Concert OT 2011 histological changes in Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus i779
Exposed to Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds powder Turkish J Fisheries Aquatic Sci 11 1 37 43
Ayssiwede S B Dieng A Bello H Chrysostome C A A M Hane M B Mankor A Dahouda M Houinato M R
http www feedipedia org node 124 09 12 2016 15 08 59
Moringa Moringa oleifera Feedipedia
Hornick J L Missohou A 2011 Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves meal incorporation in diets on growth
performances carcass characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens Pak J Nutr 10
12 1132 1145
Babiker M S 2012 Chemical composition of some non conventional and local feed resources for poultry in Sudan Int
J Poult Sci 11 4 283 287
Bakhashwain A Sallam S M A Allam A M 2010 Nutritive value assessment of some Saudi Arabian foliages by
gas production technique in vitro JKAU Met Env Arid Land Agric Sci 21 1 65 80
Banjo O S 2012 Growth and performance as affected by inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in broiler chicks diet
J Biol Agric Heathcare 2 9 35 38
Bellostas N S rensen J C Nikiema A S rensen H Pasternak D Kumar S 2010 Glucosinolates in leaves of
Moringa species grown and disseminated in Niger African J Agric Res 5 11 1338 1340
Ben Salem H Makkar H P S 2009 Defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal as a feed additive for sheep Anim Feed
Sci Technol 150 1 2 27 33
Bennett R Mellon F Foild N Pratt J Dupont M Perkins L Kroon P 2003 Profiling glucosinolates and
phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi purpose tree Moringa oleifera J Agric Food Chem 51
12 3546 3553
Bosch C H 2004 Moringa oleifera Lam In Grubben G J H Denton O A Eds PROTA Plant Resources of
Tropical Africa Ressources v g tales de l Afrique tropicale Wageningen Netherlands
Broin M 2005 Nutritional composition of Moriga oleifera leaves Moringa news 5pp
Busson F 1963 biological and chemical studies on food plants of western tropical Africa in their relations with the
geographical and human environment Qualitas Pl Mater veg 10 1 4 109 132
Chongwe A M 2011 The effect of Moringa supplementation on growth and health of indigenous Zambian chickens
M Sc dissertation University of Zambia Lusaka Zambia 47pp
Colin M Xi C Prigent A Y 2012 The enrichment of rabbit feeds with long and short chains omega 3 fatty acids an
opportunity for the producer and the consumer Cuniculture Magazine 39 33 43
Dahouda M Adjolohoun S Senou M Toleba S S Abou M Vidjannagni D S Kpod kon M Youssao A K
I 2013 Effects of diets containing Moringa oleifera Lam leafl and commericial feed on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus
growth performance and meat quality Int J Biol Chem Sci 7 5 1838 1852
David L S Vidanarachchi J K Samarasinghe K Cyril H W Dematawewa C M B 2012 Effects of Moringa
based feed additives on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chicken Trop Agric Res 24 1 12 20
Djakalia B Guichard B L Soumaila D 2011 Effect of Moringa oleifera on growth performance and health status of
young post weaning rabbits Res J Poult Sci 4 7 13
Dongmeza E Siddhuraju P Francis G Becker K 2006 Effects of dehydrated methanol extracts of Moringa
Moringa oleifera Lam leaves and three of its fractions on growth performance and feed nutrient assimilation in Nile
tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L Aquaculture 261 1 407 422
Ebenebe C I Anigbogu C C Anizoba M A Ufele A N 2013 Effect of various levels of Moringa leaf meal on the
egg quality of Isa Brown Breed of Layers Adv Life Sci Technol 14 45 49
Egbuikwem P N Sangodoyin A Y 2013 Coagulation efficacy of Moringa oleifera seed extract compared to alum for
removal of turbidity and E coli in three different water sources Eur Int J Sci Technol 2 7 13 20
Egwui P C Mgbenka B O Ezeonyejiaku C D 2013 Moringa plant and its use as feed in aquaculture
development a review Anim Res Int 10 1 1672 1680
El Tazi S M A 2014 Effect of feeding different levels of Moringa Oleifera leaf meal on the performance and carcass
quality of broiler chicks Int J Sci Res 3 5 147 151
Ewuola E O Jimoh O A Atuma O V Soipe O D 2012 Growth indices and apparent nutrient digestibility in
rabbits fed graded levels of moringa Moringa oleifera leaf meal Nigerian J Anim Sci 14 92 100
Ewuola E O Jimoh O A Atuma O V Soipe O D 2012 Haematological and serum biochemical response of
growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal Proc 10 th World Rabbit Congress September 3 6
2012 Sharm El Sheikh Egypt 679 683
FAO 2014 Moringa Traditional Crop of the Month FAO
Foidl N Makkar H P S Becker K 2001 The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses In
What development potential for Moringa products October 20th November 2nd 2001 Dar Es Salaam
Foluke A Olufemi A 2013 Effects of graded levels of cassava peels fortified with moringa as a replacement to wheat
bran on performance digestibility and blood profile of broilers J Agric Sci Technol A 3 3A 210 215
Gadzirayi C T Masamha B Mupangwa J F Washaya S 2012 Performance of broiler chickens fed on mature
Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a protein supplement to soyabean meal Int J Poult Sci 11 1 5 10
Gadzirayi C T Mupangwa J F 2014 The nutritive evaluation and utilisation of Moringa oleifera Lam in indigenous
and broiler chicken production a review Greener J Agric Sci 14 1 15 21
Gadzirayi C T Mupangwa J F 2014 Feed intake and growth performance of indigenous chicks fed diets with
Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a protein supplement during early brooding stage Int J Poult Sci 13 3 145 150
Gakuya D W Mbugua P N Kavoi B Kiama S G 2014 Effect of supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in
broiler chicken feed Int J Poult Sci 13 4 208 213
Garc a D E Medina M G Cova L J Torres A Soca M Pizzani P Baldiz n A Dom nguez C E 2008
Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State
Venezuela Pastos y forajes 31 3 255 270
Garcia D E Medina M G Clavero T Humbria J Baldizan A Dominguez C 2008 Goats preference of fodder
tree in the Venezuelan Andes low zone Rev Cient fica FCV LUZ 18 5 549 555
Garcia D E Medina M G Clavero T Cova L J Dominguez C Baldizan A 2008 Nutritional characterization
of six fodder species foliage with emphasis in their polyphenolic profiles Revista Cient fica FCV LUZ 18 2 188 196
Garcia D E Medina M G Cova L J Soca M Pizzani P Baldizan A Dominguez C E 2008 Acceptability of
tropical tree fodder by cattle sheep and goats in Trujillo state Venezuela Zootecnia Trop 26 3 191 196
Goss M 2012 A study of the initial establishment of multi purpose moringa Moringa oleifera Lam at various plant
densities their effect on biomass accumulation and leaf yield when grown as vegetable African J Plant Sci 6 3 125
http www feedipedia org node 124 09 12 2016 15 08 59


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Moringa (Moringa oleifera) | Feedipedia

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The leaves of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) have become known for their high nutritional content, widespread use in traditional medicine and potential benefi ts for human health. In addition to the potential benefi ts of direct human consumption of Moringa leaves, recent studies have found that adding Moringa leaves and green stems to the feed of milk cows increased their milk production 43-65% ...

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