Tunnels Under Construction: Code Of Practice PDF

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TUNNELSUNDER CONSTRUCTIONCODE OF PRACTICE 2006WorkCover. Watching out for you.New South Wales Government

DisclaimerThis publication contains information regarding occupational health, safety, injury management or workers compensation. It includes some of yourobligations under the various workers compensation and occupational health and safety legislation that WorkCover NSW administers. To ensure youcomply with your legal obligations you must refer to the appropriate Acts.This publication may refer to WorkCover NSW administered legislation that has been amended or repealed. When reading this publication youshould always refer to the latest laws. Information on the latest laws can be checked at www.legislation.nsw.gov.au or contact 1300 656 986. WorkCover NSW

CONTENTSPAGEWHAT IS AN INDUSTRY CODE OF PRACTICE?2FOREWORD3WHAT IS THE AIM OF THIS CODE OF PRACTICE?3WHAT IS THIS CODE OF PRACTICE ABOUT?3WHO IS THIS CODE OF PRACTICE FOR?3WHEN TO USE THIS INFORMATION3WHAT DO THE SYMBOLS IN THE CODE OF PRACTICE MEAN?4CHAPTER 1 – ESTABLISHMENT1.1 Title1.2 Purpose1.3 Scope1.4 Commencement1.5 Authority1.6 Repeal of 1990 code of practice1.7 Interpretation1.8 Legal requirements1.9 Definitions5555555666CHAPTER 2 – A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO MANAGING RISKS INUNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION2.1 Overview2.2 Understanding responsibilities2.3 Consultation and risk management99913CHAPTER 3 – DESIGN FOR SAFE TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION3.1 Overview3.2 Site investigation3.3 Tunnel design3.4 Design review for construction3.5 Ground support design3.6 Ventilation system design3.7 Inspection plans, assessment and reporting procedures3.8 Site-specific planning and preparation161616161617171720CHAPTER 4 – TRAINING, INSTRUCTION, INFORMATION AND SUPERVISION4.1 Induction training4.2 Training topics4.3 Who should receive training?4.4 Provision of information and instruction4.5 Supervision303030313132CHAPTER 5 – MANAGING RISKS DURING TUNNELLING5.1 Risk controls in common tunnelling methods and activities5.2 Risk controls in specialist construction methods and activities5.3 Air quality and ventilation systems5.4 Plant-related risks5.5 Other common tunnelling risks333340455359APPENDIX 1 – WORKERS COMPENSATION INSURANCE71APPENDIX 2 – USEFUL PUBLICATIONS72APPENDIX 3 – HAZARD CLASSIFICATION OF COMMON FUELS AND ATMOSPHERICCONTAMINANTS IN TUNNELLING76APPENDIX 4 – HEAT STRESS AND AIR COOLING79APPENDIX 5 – VENTILATION METHODS AND EQUIPMENT801

WHAT IS AN INDUSTRY CODE OF PRACTICE?An approved industry code of practice is a practical guide to employers and others who have duties underthe Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 (the OHS Act) and the Occupational Health and SafetyRegulation 2001 (the OHS Regulation) for achieving the standard of safety required by the OHS Act andOHS Regulation for a particular area of work.An approved industry code of practice should be followed unless there is an alternative course of actionthat achieves the same or better standard of health and safety in the workplace.An industry code of practice is approved by the Minister for Commerce. It takes effect on the day specifiedin the code or, if no day is specified, on the day it is published in the NSW Government Gazette.An approved industry code of practice may be amended from time to time (or it may be revoked) bypublication in the gazette.An approved industry code of practice is designed to be used in conjunction with the OHS Act and theOHS Regulation but does not have the same legal force. An approved industry code of practice is advisoryrather than mandatory. However, in legal proceedings under the OHS Act or the OHS Regulation, failure toobserve a relevant approved industry code of practice can be used as evidence that a person or companyhas contravened or failed to comply with the provisions of the OHS Act or OHS Regulation.A WorkCover NSW inspector can cite an approved industry code of practice in a direction, or in animprovement or prohibition notice, indicating the measures that should be taken to remedy an allegedcontravention or non-compliance with the OHS Act or the OHS Regulation. Failure to comply with arequirement in an improvement or prohibition notice is an offence.In summary, an approved industry code of practice: gives practical guidance on how the required standard of health, safety and welfare can be achievedin an area of work should be followed, unless there is an alternative course of action that achieves the same or betterstandard of health and safety in the workplace can be used in support of the preventive enforcement provisions of the OHS Act or OHS Regulation can be used to support prosecutions for failing to comply with or contravening the OHS Act orOHS Regulation.2

FOREWORDThis code of practice replaces the 1990 Code of practice for tunnels under construction, whichcommenced on 7 June 1991.WHAT IS THE AIM OF THIS CODE OF PRACTICE?The code gives practical advice on how to decide on appropriate measures to eliminate or control the OHSrisks that may arise in the course of tunnel construction. In doing this it provides guidance to employers inthe industry on implementing the requirements of the OHS Act and the OHS Regulation, which should beread in conjunction with this code of practice.WHAT IS THIS CODE OF PRACTICE ABOUT?The code explains the processes involved in the systematic management of OHS risks and outlines how toapply a risk management approach to the hazards commonly encountered in tunnel construction in NSW.It is intended to help in identifying the hazards, determining how serious the risks from those hazards areand implementing the most effective means of eliminating or controlling those risks.WHO IS THIS CODE OF PRACTICE FOR?The code is principally aimed at employers, employees, self-employed persons, principal contractors andsubcontractors, but is also intended to assist others involved in the process such as clients and tunneldesigners. The code is not intended to be applied in the construction of mines.WHEN TO USE THIS INFORMATIONThe provisions of this code should be considered during the tendering phase, as well as the planning andpreparation stages for carrying out the work. The code outlines regulatory requirements (under the OHSAct and OHS Regulation), as well as safety recommendations that may need to be factored into theseprocesses. To effectively implement the code, employers need to be aware of these requirements and haveprocedures in place to apply them.3

WHAT DO THE SYMBOLS IN THE CODE OFPRACTICE MEAN?The following symbols are used in the text to highlight things you need to take into account and to helpyou work out what to do and the tools you require to do the job.Assess the risks in your workplaceConsult and communicate with employeesTools that can help you work out your planLegal obligations that must be followedThe process of finding things that cause harm, working out how big a problemthey are, and then fixing them4

CHAPTER 1 – ESTABLISHMENT1.1TitleThis is the Code of practice for tunnels under construction.1.2PurposeThe purpose of this code of practice is to provide practical guidance on the prevention of illness and injuryto persons engaged in, and affected by, construction of tunnels and associated constructionworks in NSW.This code provides practical guidance on implementing the requirements of the OHS Act and theOHS Regulation and promotes consultation and cooperation between employers, employees, principalcontractors and subcontractors and/or their representatives.In terms of the relationship and relevance of the WorkCover ‘Excavation code’ to tunnelling work, it isnoted that, although involving some initial excavation work, tunnelling work is almost entirely undergroundwork and is not the primary focus of the excavation code. Accordingly, for those involved in tunnelworks the WorkCover Code of practice: Tunnels under construction is intended to be the primaryguidance document.1.3ScopeThis code of practice applies to employers, employees, self-employed persons, principal contractors,subcontractors and visitors to workplaces across NSW, whose work involves, includes or is inconnection with the construction of tunnels (including mined cut and cover excavations andassociated construction works).This code does not apply to mines within the meaning of the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1982and the Mines Inspection Act 1901.1.4CommencementThis code of practice will take effect on and from the date of gazettal.1.5AuthorityThis is an industry code of practice approved by the Minister for Commerce under section 43 of the Acton the recommendation of the WorkCover Authority of New South Wales (WorkCover NSW).1.6Repeal of 1990 code of practiceThis code of practice replaces the 1990 Code of Practice: Tunnels under construction, whichcommenced on 7 June 1991. The 1990 code is revoked under section 45 of the OHS Act and isreplaced by this code.5

1.7InterpretationRecommended practicesWords such as ‘should’ indicate recommended courses of action. ‘Consider’ indicates a possible course ofaction that the code is suggesting the duty holder consider. However, you may choose an alternative andequally effective or better method of achieving safe workplaces.1.8Legal requirementsWords such as ‘must’, ‘requires’ or ‘mandatory’ indicates that legal requirements exist that must becomplied with.1.9DefinitionsThe following terms are used in this code of practice with these meanings:clientmeans any person who commissions design work for a tunnel construction.Note: the client and owner of the place of work for the purposes of clause210 of the OHS Regulation (re the appointment of the principal contractor)are often one and the same entity.competent personfor any task means a person who has acquired through training,qualification or experience, or a combination of these, the knowledgeand skills to carry out that task.contractormeans a principal contractor or subcontractor.controller of premisesmeans a person who has control of premises used by people as a place ofwork, including: a person who has only limited control of the premisesa person who has, under any contract or lease, an obligation tomaintain or repair the premises (in which case any duty imposed ona controller under the OHS Act or OHS Regulation applies only to thematters over which the person has control).designerincludes designers of buildings, structures (including tunnels), whetherpermanent or temporary, or plant whether intended for use by themselvesor others.employeemeans an individual who works under a contract of employment orapprenticeship.employermeans a person who employs persons under contracts of employment orapprenticeship.Note: Unless the context implies otherwise, employer also includes selfemployed persons.high risk construction workmeans all categories of work listed in clause 209 of the OHS Regulationand includes construction work in tunnels.incidentmeans any incident prescribed in clauses 341 and 344 of the OHSRegulation.6

noiseincludes sound and vibration.OHS management planmeans a site specific plan that includes: a statement listing names, positions and responsibilities of all personswho will have specific responsibilities on the site for occupationalhealth and safety (OHS) the arrangements for ensuring OHS induction training the arrangements for managing OHS and safety incidents site safety rules and the manner of communication of the rules to allpersons at the site ownersafe work method statements for relevant work activities.means a person who is the owner of a place of work who is required byclause 210 of the OHS Regulation to appoint a principal contractor. Forthe purposes of clause 210 of the OHS Regulation, owner has the samemeaning as in the Local Government Act 1993 (see below for definition ofowner in the Local Government Act 1993).owner (definition of ownerin the Local Government(a) in relation to Crown land, means the Crown and includes:(i)a lessee of land from the Crown, and(ii)a person to whom the Crown has lawfully contracted to sellAct 1993)the land but in respect of which the purchase price or otherconsideration for the sale has not been received by the Crown,and(b) in relation to land other than Crown land, includes:(i)every person who jointly or severally, whether at law or in equity,is entitled to the land for any estate of freehold in possession, and(ii)every such person who is entitled to receive, or is in receipt of, orif the land were let to a tenant would be entitled to receive, therents and profits of the land, whether as beneficial owner, trustee,mortgagee in possession, or otherwise, and(iii) in the case of land that is the subject of a strata scheme underthe Strata Schemes (Freehold Development) Act 1973 or theStrata Schemes (Leasehold Development) Act 1986, the ownerscorporation for that scheme constituted under the Strata SchemesManagement Act 1996, and(iv) in the case of land that is a community, precinct orneighbourhood parcel within the meaning of the Community LandDevelopment Act 1989, the association for the parcel, and(v)every person who by this Act is taken to be the owner, and(c) in relation to land subject to a mining lease under the Mining Act1992, includes the holder of the lease, and(d) in Part 2 of Chapter 7, in relation to a building, means the owner ofthe building or the owner of the land on which the building is erected.7

personal protectivemeans any equipment or substance (such as sun protection cream) used toequipment (PPE)protect health and safety.principal contractorin relation to construction work (or a construction project involvingconstruction work) means a person who is, under clause 210 of the OHSRegulation, for the time being appointed or taken to be the principalcontractor for the construction work. Where construction work is beingundertaken and the owner has not appointed a principal contractor, theowner is taken to be the principal contractor for the construction work.Principal contractors have special duties under the OHS Regulation. Theprincipal contractor is usually the main contractor/contractor undertakingthe construction works.safe work methodmeans a statement that:statement (SWMS) describes how work is to be carried out identifies the work activities assessed as having safety risks identifies the safety risks describes the control measures that will be applied to thework activitiesand includes a description of the equipment used in the work, thestandards or codes to be complied with, the qualifications of the personneldoing the work and the training required to do the work.subcontractormeans a person who has a sub-contract with the principal contractor tocarry out work in accordance with a subcontract.self-employed personmeans a person who works for gain or reward otherwise thanunder a contract of employment or apprenticeship, whether ornot employing others.WorkCover NSWmeans the WorkCover Authority of New South Wales established bysection 14 of the Workplace Injury Management

An industry code of practice is approved by the Minister for Commerce. It takes effect on the day specified in the code or, if no day is specified, on the day it is published in the NSW Government Gazette. An approved industry code of practice may be amended from time to time (or it may be revoked) by publication in the gazette. An approved industry code of practice is designed to be used in ...