A Teaching And Learning Model That Brings The History Of . PDF

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Dr. Gholnecsar “Gholdy” Muhammadearned her Ph.D. in literacy, language, and culture at theUniversity of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). Her research has focusedon the social and historical foundations of literacy in Blackcommunities and how literacy development can be reconceptualizedin classrooms today. Dr. Muhammad is the recipient of multiple research awardsfrom the National Council of Teachers of English and from Georgia StateUniversity and UIC. She’s an associate professor at Georgia State University,where she also serves as the director of the Urban Literacy Collaborative andClinic. She works with teachers and youth across the U.S. and South Africa.Cultivating Genius CVR-full.indd 1-3IONUTIBSTRDIA N E Q U I T Y F R A M E WO R K F O R C U LT U R A L LY A N DH I S T O R I C A L LY R E S P O N S I V E L I T E R AC YT— Cornelius Minor, Brooklyn-basedEducator, Consultant, and AuthorCultivatingGeniusFOR—Alfred W. Tatum, Dean and Professor,University of Illinois at Chicago, College ofEducation. Author of Reading for Their Life.“This is the most important bookthat I have read in the last halfdecade. There were several timesthat I had to put it down to emote,to think, to mourn, to dream.Those of us who love and teachBlack children are constantlyhaving to disrupt, subvert,undermine, and destroy classroompractices and school policies thatmurder souls and steal futures. Inthis, we are robbed of countlessopportunities to co-constructpowerful, literate realities forchildren and their communities.Gholdy Muhammad reminds usthat we are architects, too—not justfighters. And Cultivating Geniusis one of our most powerfulblueprints for building on theliteracy legacy of our AfricanAmerican forebears.”G H O LDY M U H A M M A D 35.99 U.S.NO—Pedro A. Noguera, DistinguishedProfessor of Education, Faculty Director,Center for the Transformation of Schools,UCLA Graduate School of Education &Information Studies“In every generation a new voiceemerges that serves as areminder of our deeper human ityand its connection to theprinted word. Dr. GholdyMuhammad is that voice as shereminds us of the genius runningthrough the veins of children.Cultivating Genius, if read andunderstood in the spirit in whichit is written, will increase theprobability that children realizeand exercise their latent powerwithin. The field of literacy has anew gift, wrapped in its own bowof genius.”G H O LDY M U H A M M A D“In this powerful new book,Gholdy Muhammad reminds usthat literacy can be a source ofpower for young people and akey to transforming their lives.In this accessible and thoughtprovoking book, educators willfind Muhammad’s frameworkand the examples she usesilluminating and useful. Forthose who seek to use literacy asa force for equity, this book willbe an invaluable tool and guide.”Cultivating GeniusIn this book, award-winning researcher Dr. Gholdy Muhammad presentsa teaching and learning model that brings the history of illustriousAfrican American literary societies to bear on the way we teach today.The four-layered framework—identity, skills development, intellect, andcriticality— is essential for all young students, especially students of color,who tradition ally have been margin alized by learning standards, government policies, and school practices. Dr. Muhammad offers a blend ofpedagogical approaches that revolutionize teaching and learning acrossgrade levels and content areas. You’ll learn how to design historicallyresponsive learning goals and lesson plans that put this groundbreakingresearch into practice.FOREWORD BY BETTINA L . LOVE10/21/19 5:59 PM

IONUTSTR—Yolanda Sealey-Ruiz, Associate Professor of English Education,Teachers College, Columbia University“Cultivating Genius is about (re)membering thatequity and excellence have always been thehallmark of literacy traditions of Black andBrown peoples. It is about (re)storying themodels for literacy teaching and learning inways that (re)mind us all that identity, skills,criticality, and intellect have always been thefoundation of African American literacyteaching. Muhammad brilliantly writes animportant (re)member ing of who we are andour ways of being literate, one that puts cultureand community at the very heart of learningand teaching. That is where equity and excellence reside. Cultivating Genius (re)membersthat truth. And if equity and justice are to beattainable goals, we must (re)member it, too.”IB“Cultivating Genius is a timely, important, andeducator-friendly book that is needed nowmore than ever before. One cannot fullyengage the power of what is available throughculturally responsive lesson planning without applying Dr. Muhammad’s brilliant andinnova tive framework. This practical guideilluminates and translates theory in ways thatwill help educators bring about the changeneeded in literacy classrooms—change thatculturally responsive and sustaining pedagogies promise. In a sentence: This is the bookwe in the teacher education literacy fieldhave been waiting for.”— Cynthia B. Dillard, Ph.D. (Nana Mansa II of Mpeasem,Ghana, West Africa), Mary Frances Early Professor of TeacherEducation, University of GeorgiaAccess Your Companion dy Muhammad has written a trulybrilliant, necessarily bold, and absolutelybeautiful book! From her focus on utiliz inga Historically Responsive Literacy frameworkto her recognition of historical and contemporary embodiments of Black Excellence, BlackJoy, and Black Love, Cultivating Genius advocates for educational equity, transformation,and engaged teaching that cultivates thegenius of our students. What a read!”—Valerie Kinloch, Renée and Richard Goldman Dean of theUniversity of Pittsburgh School, University of Pittsburgh, School ofEducationNOT“Dr. Gholdy Muhammad has her ear attunedto the pulsing needs of youth of color andtheir teachers. She masterfully brings theoryto vibrant life in classrooms, providing educators with a framework that turns to historyto guide precisely the rich, responsive, andmultifaceted literacy learning we urgentlyneed in the present. In short, Dr. Muhammad’sconcept of Historically Responsive Literaciesis a game changer in literacy education.”“Cultivating Genius is a rare glimpse into thefuture. It is at once a framework for advanc ing equity in literacy education and a neededtreatment for undoing the historical ills ofracial injustice. It is smart and wonder fullyclear. This book offers the perfect blueprint forreimagining the possibilities of the classroom.”—David E. Kirkland, Professor, Urban Education at New YorkUniversity, Executive Director, New York University, Metro Center—Elizabeth Dutro, Professor, Literacy Studies Chair, LiteracyStudies Program School of Education, University of Colorado BoulderCultivating Genius CVR-full.indd 4-610/21/19 5:59 PM

UTIONG H O LDY M U H A M M A DDISTRIBCultivatingGeniusA N E Q U I T Y F R A M E W O R K F O R C U L T U R A L LYNOTFORA N D H I S T O R I C A L LY R E S P O N S I V E L I T E R A C YSP CULTIVATING GENIUS 001-015.indd 110/17/19 1:41 PM

And to my Baba.UTI dedicate this book to my mothers:Maria, Ajile, Evelyn, and Bernice.IONTo Al Mujib (The Responsive).STRIBPhotos : cover and throughout: johnwoodcock/Getty Images; 24: Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock; 31: Accessible Archives Inc. ;41: SDI Productions/iStockphoto; 46 top: Bongani Mnguni/City Press/Gallo Images/Getty Images; 46 bottom: AP Photo/Bill Hudson; 47:Courtesy of Oregon Historical Society; 48: kali9/iStockphoto; 53: Wilson Group Network, Inc.; 55: kali9/iStockphoto; 62: SDI Productions/iStockphoto; 66: Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock; 71: Paul Popper/Popperfoto/Getty Images; 73: xavierarnau/iStockphoto; 83: Bettmann/Getty Images; 89: Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock; 106: wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock; 130: General Research Division, The NewYork Public Library; 131: Zurijeta/Shutterstock; 136: SpeedKingz/Shutterstock; 140: University of Detroit Mercy, Special Collections, BlackAbolitionist Archive; 151: Library of Congress. All other photos by Josh Moïse for Scholastic Inc.Excerpt from “Hidden Name and Complex Fate” from Shadow and Act by Ralph Ellison. Copyright 1953, 1964 by Ralph Ellison.Reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc., a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved.Excerpt from To Be a Slave by Julius Lester. Copyright 1968 by Julius Lester. Reprinted by permission of Penguin Young Readers Group,a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved.Excerpt from Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela by Nelson Mandela. Copyright 1994, 1995 by NelsonRolihlahla Mandela. Reprinted by permission of Little, Brown and Company, a division of Hachette Book Group, Inc. All rights reserved.DIExcerpt from the speech “What Is Your Life’s Blueprint?” delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to students at Barratt Junior High inPhiladelphia on October 26, 1967. Copyright 1967 by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., renewed 1991 by Coretta Scott King. Reprinted byarrangement with The Heirs to the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr., c/o Writers House as agent for the proprietor New York, NY.All rights reserved.FORPublisher: Lois BridgesEditorial director: Sarah LonghiEditor-in-Chief: Raymond CoutuDevelopment/production editor: Danny MillerSenior editor: Shelley GriffinAssistant editor: Molly BradleyEditorial assistant: Sean CavanaghCover designer: Tom MartinezInterior designer: Maria LiljaScholastic is not responsible for the content of third-party websites and does not endorse any site or imply that the information on thesite is error-free, correct, accurate, or reliable.TNo part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission,write to Scholastic Inc., 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012.NOCopyright 2020 by Gholdy Muhammad.All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic Inc.Printed in the U.S.A.ISBN-13: 978-1-338-59489-8SCHOLASTIC and associated logos are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of Scholastic Inc.Other company names, brand names, and product names are the property and/or trademarks of their respective owners.Scholastic does not endorse any product or business entity mentioned herein.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 104028 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19Text pages printed on 10% PCW recycled paper.Scholastic Inc., 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012SP CULTIVATING GENIUS 001-015.indd 210/17/19 1:41 PM

IONContentsACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5UTFOREWORD BY BETTINA L. LOVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6INTRODUCTION: Restoring Equity and Excellenceto Today’s Classrooms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8IBPART ONE: Drawing From History to ReimagineLiteracy Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16STRCHAPTER 1: How 19th-Century Black LiterarySocieties Can Elevate Today’s Literacy Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18CHAPTER 2: What Is Historically Responsive Literacy?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38PART TWO: Teaching and LearningWith the Four-Layered HRL Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62DICHAPTER 3: Toward the Pursuit of Identity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64CHAPTER 4: Toward the Pursuit of Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82FORCHAPTER 5: Toward the Pursuit of Intellect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100CHAPTER 6: Toward the Pursuit of Criticality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116PART THREE: Implementing Historically ResponsiveTexts and Lesson Plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134CHAPTER 7: Selecting Historically Responsive Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136NOTCHAPTER 8: Using Historically Responsive Lesson Plans. . . . . . . . . . 156AFTERWORD BY MAISHA T. WINN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174SP CULTIVATING GENIUS 001-015.indd 310/17/19 1:41 PM

CHAPTER 2UTIONWhat Is HistoricallyResponsive Literacy?FORDISTRIBIt has been most happily said, by one of the greatest ofmodern philosophers, that “Knowledge is power;” andnever has the excellency of its possession been doubted bythe candid and liberal; but education must begin in youth,in order to furnish men of erudition. Our youth are the menof a coming age; and who can calculate the importance ofcompetent instruction in the development of their powers,and in the formation of their minds. How many millionsare ruined in their early days, for the want of goodinstruction! Yes! We need to be constantly remindedof the power of education, right or wrong, thorough orsuperficial, controlled or slighted—to make or ruin thehopes of our country; and in reference to this subject,it has been said, with propriety, that a man cannot leavehis country a better legacy than a well-educated family.—Robert SearsTNOThis stirring quote by Robert Sears, a White contributor who oftencritiqued the current state of politics and education in the UnitedStates, was originally published July 8, 1837, in The Colored Americannewspaper. Sears argued that a quality education and quality of life areintertwined human rights and must be both excellent and powerful. Fordecades, communities of color especially have been resisting wrongful,deficit-based education. Indeed, we have worked to name and describethe education we deserve to avoid the ruin of poor education.38SP CULTIVATING GENIUS 016-061.indd 38Cultivating Genius: An Equity Framework for Culturally and Historically Responsive Literacy10/15/19 6:43 PM

Cultural Theories and ModelsSTRIBUTIONFrom her work with successful teachers of African American students,Gloria Ladson-Billings coined the term culturally relevant education.Following the ancestors’ examples, Ladson-Billings named and describedthe type of edu

Cultivating Genius. is about (re)membering that . equity and excellence have always been the hallmark of literacy traditions of Black and Brown peoples. It is about (re)storying the models for literacy teaching and learning in ways that (re)mind us all that identity, skills, criticality, and intellect have always been the