Chapter 2 The Earliest Human Societies - 6th Grade Social . PDF

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ChapterThe EarliestHuman Societies2Before You Read: K-W-L400,000years agoK-W-L stands for what you know, what you want to know,and what you have learned. What do you already know about early human societies? Study the map and the time line. What do they tell you aboutwhere early humans lived?EUROPE1.8 millionyears ago1.5 millionyears ago700,000years ago What do you want to learn about the earliest human societies?AFRICA3.6 millionyears agoBig Ideas About the EarliestHuman SocietiesCulture Ways of living change as humans interactwith one another.The first humans hunted animals and gathered plants for food.Then, as they interacted with one another, they developed toolsand weapons to aid them in these activities. New, more settledways of living developed as people shared ideas.N120,000 years agoWES0Integrated Technology0100010002000 miles2000 kilometersINTERNET RESOURCESGo to ClassZone.com for WebQuest Quizzes Homework Helper Maps Research Links Test Practice Internet Activities Current EventsInteractive Maps Interactive Visuals Starting with a Story 160 W140 W120 W100 W80 W60 W20 W0 20 E40 E 500,000 B.C .Early humans learn howto control fire.(19th-century lithograph)40 W40,000 B.C .Cro-Magnons appear.4660 E

Early Human Migration to 10,000 years ago80 NARCTIC OCEAN11,900years ago14,000years agoArctic Circle60 N21,000years agoNORTHAMERICAASIA12,000years ago11,000years ago600,000years ago40 NATLANTICOCEANTropic of Cancer20 N23,000years agoPACIFIC OCEANEquator0 SOUTHAMERICA700,000years ago12,000years ago20 STropic of CapricornAUSTRALIAIN DI A NOCEANFossil site12,500years agoMigration route33,000years ago40 SAncient coastlineExtent of last glacier, 18,000 B.C.Land exposed by lower sea level, 18,000 B.C.60 SAntarctic Circle100 E120 E140 E160 E180 160 W140 W120 W100 W 8000 B.C .First agriculture takesplace with tools such asthis wooden plow.80 W60 W5000 B.C .First cities beginto develop.,9000 B.C .Domestication ofanimals begins.6000 B.C .Improved farming methods lead tolarger settlements, such as Catal Huyuk,from which this bronze deer comes. 10,000 B.C .Last ice age ends. (glacier dividing, Alaska)47

Background: In 1991, a couple hiking in theAlps in Europe discovered the frozen body of a man.Ancient-looking tools and weapons lay near the body.A scientist studying early humans announced that thishunter was 5,300 years old. His body and belongingswere well preserved by the cold.Scientists nicknamed him the Iceman. Theyfound an arrowhead in his shoulder. The contentsof his stomach showed that his last meal, eatenjust hours before his death, had included deer,barley, and wheat. The hunter’s body found in the Alps48

Starting with a StoryPrimary Sourcehe hunter had been walking since dawn. The air in theHandbookAlps was cold, but the morning fog had cleared up during See the excerpt fromThe Man in the Ice,the course of the day. He was glad of his warm fur hat,page R36.goatskin clothes, and grass cloak.He had spent most of his life walking in these mountains. He had worn outmany pairs of deerskin shoes. The ones he was wearing had soles of bearskin.On this day, the mountain seemed steeper than usual. It might have beenhis age. The hunter was over 40, one of the oldest people in his community. Buthe could still easily carry everything he needed. His leather quiver containeda bow, arrow shafts, and arrows with flint heads. He was also carrying a flintdagger and an ax made of wood from a yew tree, with a copper blade. His beltpouch held three flint tools, a bone awl, and a piece of tinder. He also carried amedicine kit in case he became sick or injured.Suddenly a man lunged toward him. The hunter struggled with himin an attempt to escape. He managed to free himself from the man’sgrasp and knock the ax out of his hand. He bounded away across the icylandscape. As he looked back, he saw that others had joined the pursuit.As the hunter turned to run, he felt a searing pain in his shoulder. He’dbeen shot from behind with an arrow. With his last bit of strength, hestruggled farther up the mountain. He found a narrow cave in the ice andmanaged to hide from his enemies. As night approached, it turned verycold, and snow began to fall. Snow covered the dying hunter, and his bodyremained undisturbed for more than 5,000 years. He was discovered by hikersin 1991, when an unusually warm year caused the ice to thaw. His body thenwas studied by scientists, revealing much about how prehistoric people lived.What do you think life was like for early humans?1. READING: Reading Aloud One way to read textfluently and accurately is to rehearse it. With a partner,read the text aloud. Practice those parts that give youtrouble to gain the full dramatic effect.2. WRITING: Description Imagine that you are going tomake a documentary film about the hunter. Write a briefdescription of the film.49

Lesson1MAIN IDEASGeography Early humans adapted to thenatural environment.Culture Humans created tools to ensuresurvival and to improve life.Culture Early humans developed language,religion, and art.TAKING NOTESReading Skill: SummarizingTo summarize is to condense information intofewer words. Identify the main ideas andimportant details in this lesson. Then put theminto your own words and record them in a graphicorganizer like the one below. Spear ThrowerPrehistoric hunters usedspear throwers to throwspears faster and farther.These devices greatlyimproved their ability tohunt animals.Hunter-GatherersSkillbuilder Handbook, page R3Words to KnowUnderstanding the following words will help you read this lesson:band a group ofpeople or animals actingtogether (page 52)Small bands of hunterssearched for animals to killfor their meat and skins.50 Chapter 2community a groupof people with close tiesliving in one area(page 52)Hunters provided meatfor the new communities,which had grown large.apply to put into actionor use (page 53)They were able to applytheir knowledge of stonecarving to make toolsand weapons.spirit the part of abeing believed to controlthinking and feeling; thesoul (page 54)He asked the tree’s spirit toforgive him before he took itsbark to use for his shelter.

TERMS & NAMEShunter-gathererHunters andGatherersnomadmigrationtechnologyreligionBuild on What You Know Have you ever gone camping?How would you survive if you got lost in the woods? Wherewould you find food and water? In this chapter, you willlearn how early humans got food to eat, how they lived, andwhat tools they used.Early Humans’ Way of LifeESSENTIAL QUESTION How did early humans interact withthe environment?Like early humans, you interact with the natural environmentevery day, often without thinking about it. You interact withthe weather by wearing boots in the snow or sunglasses in thesunshine. Even your food is a product of the environment.Hunter-Gatherers Adapt to Environments Earlyhumans were hunter-gatherershunter-gatherers. They hunted animals andgathered plants for food. When hunter-gatherers no longerhad enough to eat, they moved to another location.Early humans also depended on the natural environmentfor shelter. Some groups lived in caves and rock shelters.People who lived on plains or in desert areas may havemade shelters out of branches, plant fibers, or animal skins.African SavannahThis photographshows the kind oflandscape over whichthe first huntergatherers roamed.Savannahs cover 40percent of the Africancontinent. The Earliest Human Societies 51

Small Bands Hunter-gatherers lived together in small bands, eachmade up of several families. The size of a group—probably around30 people—reflected the number of people who could live offthe plants and animals in a given region. Men hunted and fished.Women gathered foods, such as berries and nuts from plants thatgrew wild. They cared for the children, who also worked.Early Humans on the Move Hunter-gatherers were nomadsnomads,people who move from place to place. Movement often waslimited. Groups returned to the same places with the changesof seasons. At certain times of the year, these early bands joinedtogether, forming larger communities. There was probably timefor storytelling, meeting friends, and finding marriage partners.Early humans also moved to new and distant lands. The actof moving from one place to settle in another is called migrationmigration.Migrations may have been the result of people’s followinganimals to hunt. By around 15,000 B.C., hunter-gatherers hadmigrated throughout much of the world. They even traveledacross a land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska. In this way,they entered the Americas.Distribution of Hunter–Gatherers,15,000 B.C.–A.D. 200015,000 B.C.A.D. 1500Hunter-gatherer peoplesA.D. 2000GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDERINTERPRETING MAPSMovement What has happened tothe distribution of hunter-gatherersbetween 15,000 B.C. and the present?52 Chapter 2

The arrival of a migrating group in theterritory of another people could lead to bothgood and bad outcomes. Everyone benefitedwhen knowledge and tools were shared.However, people sometimes turned violentwhen they felt threatened by newcomers. Theyfeared that the newcomers might try to taketheir territory. Sometimes they may have fearedthem just because they were different.Why did hunter-gatherers move often?The Development of ToolsESSENTIAL QUESTION What were some tools createdby early humans?Imagine that you are planning a camping trip.Think about what tools you will take to makesure your trip is safe and enjoyable. Like you,early humans relied on tools. Early Tools Amongthe tools used by earlyhumans were themattock (a digging tool),the harpoon, and the ax.The Use of Fire Around 500,000 years ago, earlyhumans learned to make and control fire. Fire provided heatand light, and it enabled people to cook food. A good fireoffered protection from animals. Early humans also used fireto temper, or harden, tools made of metal.The Development of Technology Technology consistsVocabulary StrategyYou can figure outwhat technologymeans from its rootand suffix. TheGreek root technmeans “craft” or“skill.” The suffix-logy means “studyof.” Technologymeans “the study andapplication of craftsor skills.“of all of the ways in which people apply knowledge, tools,and inventions to meet their needs. Technology dates backto early humans. At least 2 million years ago, people madestone tools for cutting. Early humans also made carryingbags, stone hand axes, awls (tools for piercing holes inleather or wood), and drills.In time, humans developed more complex tools, suchas hunting bows made of wood. They learned to make flintspearheads and metal tools. Early humans used tools tohunt and butcher animals and to construct simple formsof shelter. Technology—these new tools—gave humans morecontrol over their environment. These tools also set the stage fora more settled way of life.How did early humans use fire?The Earliest Human Societies 53

Early Human CultureESSENTIAL QUESTION What kind of culture did early humans create?What sets humans apart from other creatures? Art, language,and religion are special to humans and help create their culture.Language Human language probably developed as a resultof the need for people to work together. One theory suggeststhat the need for cooperation during the hunt spurred languagedevelopment. Hunters needed to be able to talk to one anotherin order to outsmart, trap, and kill animals for food. Anothertheory suggests that the cooperation needed to gather and sharefood led to the development of language.Religion Religion is the worship of God, gods, or spirits. Earlyhumans probably believed that everything in nature, includingrocks, trees, and animals, had a spirit. Some archaeologistsbelieve that early cave paintings of animals were made to honorthe spirits of animals killed for food.Prehistoric Cave ArtPrehistoric people in different parts of the world paintedscenes on cave walls. Such rock paintings are among theoldest art in the world.The cave art on the top was done by a NativeAmerican artist in Utah. The painting shows a holy manholding a snake. Snakes were seen as links between thehuman and underground worlds.The painting at the bottom was done byan Australian Aboriginal artist. It shows adreamtime spirit. Dreamtime is a supernaturalpast in which ancestor spirits shaped thenatural world.SKILLBUILDERINTERPRETING VISUALSMaking Inferences What do these examplestell you about early human art? On the basis oftheir art, how important does religion seem tohave been in the lives of prehistoric peoples?54 Chapter 2

Art Prehistoric art gives us insights into humans’ daily lifeand shared beliefs. Early humans created art in caves and rockshelters. They also created art they could carry with them.More than 200 sites of early cave art have been discovered inFrance and Spain. Cave paintings thousands of years old showlively images of bulls, stallions, and bison. Prehistoric art existsin Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, and the Americas.Jewelry and figurines are examples of portable art. Earlyhumans may have worn these items. Other items may haveAntler Headdress This redhad religious meaning. Art also included music, dance, anddeer antler headdress,stories—art that could be performed anywhere.which is about 9,500What were the main elements of prehistoric culture?Lesson Summaryyears old, may have beenused as a disguise inhunting or worn in huntingceremonies. Hunter-gatherers were nomads. Fire and tools improved lives. Early humans created language,religion, and art.Why It Matters Now . . .Early humans created the first tools. Today technologycontinues to improve our lives and help us survive.1Homework HelperClassZone.comTerms & Names1. Explain the importance sing Your NotesSummarizing Use your completed graphicorganizer to answer the following question:2. How did hunter-gatherers live?Hunter-GatherersMain Ideas3. How did prehistoric people use available naturalresources for food, housing, and clothing?4. How did the development of tools change the lifeof early humans?5. Where are some of the places that prehistoric arthas been found?Critical Thinking6. Comparing and Contrasting How was caveart different from other kinds of art created byearly humans?7. Drawing Conclusions What does their art tellus about early humans?Making a Map Use the map on pages A6-A7 of the Atlas to sketch a world outline map. Youwill add to this map in later units. Use the map on page 52 to mark the location of the huntergatherer group closest to where you live.The Earliest Human Societies 55

Skillbuilder Extend Lesson 1Finding Main IdeasGoal: To identify the main idea of a passage in orderto better understand hunter-gatherer societiesLearn the SkillA main idea is the most important point in a paragraph or a passage.A main idea may or may not be stated in so many words. In theexample to the right, the main idea is not stated. To find the main ideaof a passage, identify the topic. T

early humans relied on tools. The Use of Fire Around 500,000 years ago, early humans learned to make and control fire. Fire provided heat and light, and it enabled people to cook food. A good fire offered protection from animals. Early humans also used fire to temper, or harden, tools made of metal. The Development of Technology Technology consists