Designation: E 1465 – 08Standard Practice forRadon Control Options for the Design and Construction ofNew Low-Rise Residential Buildings1This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1465; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This practice covers the design and construction of tworadon control options for use in new low-rise residentialbuildings. These unobtrusive (built-in) soil depressurizationoptions are installed with a pipe route appropriate for theirintended initial mode of operation, that is, fan-powered orpassive. One of these pipe routes should be installed during aresidential building’s initial construction. Specifications for thecritical gas-permeable layer, the radon system’s piping, andradon entry pathway reduction are comprehensive and common to both pipe routes.1.1.1 The first option has a pipe route appropriate for afan-powered radon reduction system. The radon fan should beinstalled after (1) an initial radon test result reveals unacceptable radon concentrations and therefore a need for an operatingradon fan, or (2) the owner has specified an operating radonfan, as well as acceptable radon test results before occupancy.Fan operated soil depressurization radon systems reduce indoorradon concentrations up to 99 %.1.1.2 The second option has a more efficient pipe routeappropriate for passively operated radon reduction systems.Passively operated radon reduction systems provide radonreductions of up to 50 %. When the radon test results for abuilding with an operating passive system are not acceptable,that system should be converted to fan-powered operation.Radon systems with pipe routes installed for passive operationcan be converted easily to fan-powered operation; such fanoperated systems reduce indoor radon concentrations up to99 %.1.2 The options provide different benefits:1.2.1 The option using the pipe route for fan-poweredoperation is intended for builders with customers who wantmaximum unobtrusive built-in radon reduction and documented evidence of an effective radon reduction system beforea residential building is occupied. Radon systems with fanpowered type pipe routes allow the greatest architecturalfreedom for vent stack routing and fan location.1This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E06 on Performance of Buildings and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E06.41 on AirLeakage and Ventilation Performance.Current edition approved March 1, 2008. Published May 2008. Originallyapproved in 1992. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as E 1465 – 07a.1.2.2 The option using the pipe route for passive operationis intended for builders and their customers who want unobtrusive built-in radon reduction with the lowest possibleoperating cost, and documented evidence of acceptable radonsystem performance before occupancy. If a passive system’sradon reduction is unacceptable, its performance can be significantly increased by converting it to fan-powered operation.1.3 Fan-powered, soil depressurization, radon-reductiontechniques, such as those specified in this practice, have beenused successfully for slab-on-grade, basement, and crawlspacefoundations throughout the world.1.4 Radon in air testing is used to assure the effectiveness ofthese soil depressurization radon systems. The U.S. nationalgoal for indoor radon concentration, established by the U.S.Congress in the 1988 Indoor Radon Abatement Act, is toreduce indoor radon as close to the levels of outside air as ispracticable. The radon concentration in outside air is assumedto be 0.4 picocuries per litre (pCi/l) (15 Becquerels per cubicmetre (Bq/m3)); the U.S.’s average radon concentration inindoor air is 1.3 pCi/L (50 Bq/m3). The goal of this practice isto make available new residential buildings with indoor radonconcentrations below 2.0 pCi/L (75 Bq/m3) in occupiablespaces.1.5 This practice is intended to assist owners, designers,builders, building officials and others who design, manage, andinspect radon systems and their construction for new low-riseresidential buildings.1.6 This practice can be used as a model set of practices,which can be adopted or modified by state and local jurisdictions, to fulfill objectives of their residential building codes andregulations. This practice also can be used as a reference for thefederal, state, and local health officials and radiation protectionagencies.1.7 The new dwelling units covered by this practice havenever been occupied. Radon reduction for existing low riseresidential buildings is covered by Practice E 2121, or by stateand local building codes and radiation protection regulations.1.8 Fan-powered soil depressurization, the principal strategy described in this practice, offers the most effective andmost reliable radon reduction of all currently available strategies. Historically, far more fan-powered soil depressurizationradon reduction systems have been successfully installed andoperated than all other radon reduction methods combined.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.1Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Aug 19 13:43:58 EDT 2008Downloaded/printed byDouglas Kladder (CERTI) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
E 1465 – 08These methods are not the only methods for reducing indoorradon concentrations (1-3).21.9 Section 7 is Occupational Radon Exposure and WorkerSafety.1.10 Appendix X1 is Principles of Operation for FanPowered Soil Depressurization Radon Reduction.1.11 Appendix X2 is a Summary of Practice E 1465 Requirements for Installation of Radon Reduction Systems in NewLow Rise Residential Building.1.12 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses aremathematical conversions to SI units that are provided forinformation only and are not considered standard.1.13 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards: 3C 29/C 29M Test Method for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”)and Voids in AggregateC 33 Specification for Concrete AggregatesC 127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (SpecificGravity), and Absorption of Coarse AggregateD 1785 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80, and 120D 2241 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)D 2282 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene(ABS) Plastic Pipe4D 2466 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40D 2661 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene(ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipeand FittingsD 2665 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and FittingsD 2729 Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC)Sewer Pipe and FittingsD 2751 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene(ABS) Sewer Pipe and FittingsE 631 Terminology of Building ConstructionsE 1643 Practice for Installation of Water Vapor RetardersUsed in Contact with Earth or Granular Fill Under Concrete SlabsE 1745 Specification for Plastic Water Vapor RetardersUsed in Contact with Soil or Granular Fill under ConcreteSlabsE 2121 Practice for Installing Radon Mitigation Systems in2The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end ofthis standard.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.4Withdrawn.Existing Low-Rise Residential BuildingsF 405 Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Pipeand FittingsF 628 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene(ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent PipeWith a Cellular CoreF 891 Specification for Coextruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride)(PVC) Plastic Pipe With a Cellular Core2.2 Other Publications:ACI 332 Requirements for Residential Concrete Construction and Commentary5ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 Building Code Requirementsfor Masonry Structures5ASME B36.10M “Welded and Seamless Wrought SteelPipe,” March 20016International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code, Appendix D7International Residential Code (IRC), Chapter 4 and Appendix F7NCMA TEK 3-11 Concrete Masonry Basement Wall Construction8NCMA TEK 15-1B Allowable Stress Design of ConcreteMasonry Foundation Walls8NCMA TEK 15-2B Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Walls8NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code, Chapters 36, 41, 43 and 49, 20039One and Two Family Dwelling Code7Uniform Building Code, Chapters 18, 19 and 2173. Terminology3.1 Definitions for standard terminology can be found inTerminology E 631.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:3.2.1 acceptable radon concentration—unless determinedotherwise by statute, is the new building’s maximum allowablein indoor radon concentration. The acceptable radon concentration is that to which the buyer and the seller agree, providedthat the agreed to radon concentration is less than the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) recommended action level for radon in indoor air. When there has been noagreement about the building’s acceptable indoor radon concentrations, that radon concentration should be less than thethen current U.S. EPA recommended action level. As of thiswriting the U.S. EPA recommended action level is to reducethe radon concentrations in residential buildings that have testresults showing 4 picocuries per litre (pCi/L) (150 becquerelsof radon per cubic metre (Bq/m3)) or more (4).5Available from American Concrete Institute (ACI), P.O. Box 9094, FarmingtonHills, MI 48333-9094, http://www.aci-int.org.6Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASMEInternational Headquarters, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990,http://www.asme.org.7Available from International Code Council (ICC), 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite600, Falls Church, VA 22041-3401, http://www.intlcode.org.8Available from the National Concrete Masonry Association, (NCMA), 13750Sunrise Valley Drive, Herndon, VA 20171-466, http://www.ncma.org.9Available from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 BatterymarchPark, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, http://www.nfpa.org.2Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Aug 19 13:43:58 EDT 2008Downloaded/printed byDouglas Kladder (CERTI) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.
E 1465 – 083.2.2 channel drain—an interior basement water drainagesystem typically consisting of a 1 to 2-in. (25 to 50-mm) gapbetween the interior of a basement wall and the concrete floorslab.3.2.3 gas-permeable layer—the sub-slab or sub-membranelayer of gas-permeable material, ideally a clean course aggregate like crushed stone or other specified gas-permeablematerial that supports the concrete slab or plastic membraneand through which a negative pressure field extends from thesuction point pipe to the foundation walls and footings.3.2.4 ground cover—for purposes of this standard, groundcovers are concrete slabs, thin concrete slabs, and plasticmembranes, that are installed in soil depressurization radonreduction systems to seal the top of the gas-permeable layer.Ground covers are sealed at seams, pipe and other penetrationsand at the perimeter.3.2.5 initial radon test—a radon test for indoor air performed according to applicable U.S. EPA and state protocols(5, 6), with devices that meet U.S. EPA requirements and listedby a recognized radon proficiency program. The purpose of aninitial radon test is to determine the radon concentration in theoccupiable space of a residential building, while the fanpowered radon reduction system is not operating. The decisionto reduce indoor radon concentrations is usually based on theinitial radon test result.188.8.131.52 Discussion—Equipment that can lower radon concentrations by diluting the indoor radon, like heat recoveryventilators and central air conditioning systems that draw inmake-up air, should not be operated during the initial radontest. A radon reduction system should not be operated during aninitial radon test.184.108.40.206 Discussion—Passive radon reduction systemsshould be tested only with post-mitigation radon tests becausepassive radon systems have not been designed to be disabled.3.2.6 karst—an area of irregular limestone in which erosionhas produced fissures, sinkholes, caves, caverns, and underground streams.3.2.7 low-rise residential building—a structure for permanent human occupancy containing one or more dwelling unitsand (1) in jurisdictions where a basement is not defined as astory, having three or fewer stories or (2) in jurisdictions wherea basement is defined as a story, having four or fewer stories.For determining whether a basement or cellar counts as a storyabove grade, refer to legally adopted general building codeenforced in local jurisdiction.3.2.8 manifold piping—this piping collects the air flow fromtwo or more suction points. In the case of a single suction pointsystem, there is no manifold piping, since suction point pipingis connected directly to the vent stack piping.3.2.9 occupiable spaces—for purposes of this standard,occupiable spaces are areas of buildings where human beingsspend or could spend time, on a regular or occasional basis.220.127.116.11 Discussion—Examples of occupiable spaces arethose that are or could be used for sleeping, cooking, aworkshop, a hobby, reading, student home work, a home office,entertainment (TV, music, computer, and so forth) physicalworkout, laundry, games, or child’s play.3.2.10 post-mitigation radon test—a radon test for indoorair performed according to applicable U.S. EPA and stateprotocols (5, 6), with devices that meet U.S. EPA requirementsand listed by a recognized radon proficiency program. Thepurpose of the post-mitigation radon test is to determine theradon concentration in the occupiable space of a residentialbuilding while the radon reduction system is operating. Postmitigation radon tests results are usually used to evaluate theperformance of a building’s radon reduction system. Equipment that can lower radon concentrations by diluting the indoorradon, like heat recovery ventilators, and central air conditioning systems that draw in make-up air, should not be operatedduring the post-mitigation radon test, unless they have manufacturer’s labels that state specifically that these appliances areintended to reduce indoor radon co
3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website. 4 Withdrawn. 5 Available fromAmerican Concrete Institute (ACI), P.O. Box 9094, Farmington