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CSSBBCERTIFIEDSIX SIGMA BLACK BELTQuality excellence to enhance your careerand boost your organization’s bottom lineasq.org/cert

Certification from ASQ is considered a mark of qualityexcellence in many industries. It helps you advance yourcareer and boosts your organization’s bottom line throughyour mastery of quality skills. Becoming certified as aSix Sigma Black Belt confirms your commitment to qualityand the positive impact it will have on your organization.ExaminationEach certification candidateis required to pass a writtenexamination that consists ofmultiple-choice questions thatmeasure comprehension ofthe body of knowledge.2Certified Six Sigma Black Belt

INFORMATIONCertified Six Sigma Black BeltThe Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) is a professional who can explainSix Sigma philosophies and principles, including supporting systems and tools.A Black Belt should demonstrate team leadership, understand team dynamics,and assign team member roles and responsibilities. Black Belts have a thoroughunderstanding of all aspects of the DMAIC model in accordance with Six Sigmaprinciples. They have basic knowledge of lean enterprise concepts, are able toidentify nonvalue-added elements and activities, and are able to use specific tools.CSSBBExperience RequiredComputer Delivered - the CSSBBexamination is a one-part,165-question, four-and-a-half-hourexam and is offered in English only.One hundred and fifty questions arescored and 15 are unscored.Six Sigma Black Belt requires twocompleted projects with signedaffidavits, or one completed projectwith a signed affidavit and threeyears of work experience, in oneor more areas of the Six SigmaBlack Belt Body of Knowledge.Paper and Pencil – The CSSBBexamination is a one-part,150-question, four-hour examand is offered in English only.For comprehensive exam information on Six Sigma Black Belt certification,visit asq.org/cert.Certified Six Sigma Black Belt3

Minimum ExpectationsOrganization-widePlanning and Deployment Will understand how to deploySix Sigma within a project. Will be able to implement toolsand techniques to deploy strategicdirections for initiatives. Will understand the roles andresponsibilities for Six Sigmaprojects and how each groupinfluences project deployment,and will be able to supportcommunications about theproject deployment. Will be able to apply operationalchange management techniqueswithin their defined scopeor domain.Organizational ProcessManagement and Measures Will be able to define varioustypes of benchmarking.Define Will be able to select datacollection methods and collectvoice of the customer data,and use customer feedback todetermine customer requirements. Will understand the elementsof a project charter (problemstatement, scope, goals, etc.)and be able to use various toolsto track the project progress.Measure Will be able to define and useprocess flow metrics and analysistools to indicate the performanceof a process. Will be able to develop andimplement data collection plans,and use techniques in sampling,data capture, and processing tools. Will be able to describe varioustypes of performance measures,and select an appropriate financialmeasure for a given situation andcalculate its result. Will be able to define and describemeasurement system analysis tools.Team Management Will be able to calculatestatistical and processcapability indices. Will understand the componentsand techniques used inmanaging teams, including timemanagement, planning anddecision-making tools, teamformation, motivational techniquesand factors that demotivate ateam, and performance evaluationand reward. Will be able to describe elementsthat can result in a team’s success.4 Will be able to use appropriatetechniques to overcome variousgroup dynamics challenges.Certified Six Sigma Black Belt Will apply basic probabilityconcepts and understandvarious distributions.Analyze Will be able to analyze theresults of correlation andregression analyses. Will be able to definemultivariate tools. Will be able to performhypothesis tests for means,variances, and proportions,and analyze their results.

Will understand the componentsand concepts for ANOVA, chisquare, contingency tables, andnonparametric tests. Will understand the elements andpurpose of FMEA and use rootcause analysis tools. Will be able to identify andinterpret the seven classic wastes. Will be able to use gapanalysis tools.Improve Will be able to define and applydesign of experiments (DOE)principles, and distinguish amongthe various types of experiments. Will be able to apply various leantools and techniques to eliminatewaste and reduce cycle time. Will understand how to implementan improved process and how toanalyze and interpret risk studies.Control Will be able to apply, use, andanalyze the various statisticalprocess control (SPC) techniques. Will understand total productivemaintenance (TPM) and visualfactory concepts. Will be able to develop controlplans and use various tools tomaintain and sustain improvements.Design For Six Sigma (DFSS)Framework and Methodologies Will understand common DFSSand DFX methodologies, andelements of robust designs.Certified Six Sigma Black Belt5

BODY OF KNOWLEDGECertified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB)Topics in this body of knowledge (BoK) include additional detailin the form of subtext explanations and the cognitive level at whichtest questions will be written. This information will provide guidancefor the candidate preparing to take the exam. The subtext is notintended to limit the subject matter or be all-inclusive of what mightbe covered in an exam. It is meant to clarify the type of content tobe included in the exam. The descriptor in parentheses at the endof each entry refers to the maximum cognitive level at which thetopic will be tested. A complete description of cognitive levels isprovided at the end of this document.I. Organization-WidePlanning and Deployment(Questions 12)A. Organization-wide Considerations1. Fundamentals of Six Sigmaand lean methodologiesDefine and describe the value,foundations, philosophy, history,and goals of these approaches,and describe the integration andcomplementary relationshipbetween them. (Understand)2. Six Sigma, lean, and continuousimprovement methodologiesDescribe when to use Six Sigmainstead of other problem-solvingapproaches, and describe theimportance of aligning Six Sigmaobjectives with organizationalgoals. Describe screening criteriaand how such criteria can beused for the selection of Six Sigmaprojects, lean initiatives, and othercontinuous improvement methods.(Apply)6Certified Six Sigma Black Belt3. Relationships amongbusiness systems and processesDescribe the interactiverelationships among businesssystems, processes, and internaland external stakeholders, and theimpact those relationships have onbusiness systems. (Understand)4. Strategic planning anddeployment for initiativesDefine the importance of strategicplanning for Six Sigma projectsand lean initiatives. Demonstratehow hoshin kanri (X-matrix),portfolio analysis, and other toolscan be used in support of strategicdeployment of these projects.Use feasibility studies, SWOTanalysis (strengths, weaknesses,opportunities, and threats), PESTanalysis (political, economic,social, and technological)and contingency planningand business continuity planningto enhance strategic planningand deployment. (Apply)

B. Leadership1. Roles and responsibilitiesDescribe the roles andresponsibilities of executiveleadership, champions, sponsors,process owners, Master BlackBelts, Black Belts, and GreenBelts in driving Six Sigma andlean initiatives. Describe howeach group influences projectdeployment in terms of providingor managing resources, enablingchanges in organizationalstructure, and supportingcommunications about thepurpose and deployment ofthe initiatives. (Understand)2. Organizational roadblocksand change managementDescribe how an organization’sstructure and culture can impactSix Sigma projects. Identifycommon causes of Six Sigmafailures, including lack ofmanagement support and lackof resources. Apply changemanagement techniques, includingstakeholder analysis, readinessassessments, and communicationplans to overcome barriers anddrive organization-wide change.(Apply)II. O rganizational ProcessManagement andMeasures (10 Questions)A. Impact on StakeholdersDescribe the impact Six Sigma projectscan have on customers, suppliers, andother stakeholders. (Understand)B. BenchmarkingDefine and distinguish betweenvarious types of benchmarking,e.g., best practices, competitive,collaborative, breakthrough. Selectmeasures and performance goals forprojects resulting from benchmarkingactivities. (Apply)C. Business Measures1. Performance measuresDefine and describe balancedscorecard, key performanceindicators (KPIs), customer loyaltymetrics, and leading and laggingindicators. Explain how to createa line of sight from performancemeasures to organizationalstrategies. (Analyze)2. Financial measuresDefine and use revenue growth,market share, margin, net presentvalue (NPV), return on investment(ROI), and cost benefit analysis(CBA). Explain the differencebetween hard cost measures(from profit and loss statements)and soft cost benefits of costavoidance and reduction. (Apply)III. T eam Management(18 Questions)A. Team Formation1. Team types and constraintsDefine and describe variousteams, including virtual, crossfunctional, and self-directed.Determine what team type willwork best for a given a set ofconstraints, e.g., geography,technology availability, staffschedules, time zones. (Apply)2. Team roles and responsibilitiesDefine and describe variousteam roles and responsibilitiesfor leader, facilitator, coach, andindividual member. (Understand)3. Team member selection criteriaDescribe various factors thatinfluence the selection of teammembers, including the ability toinfluence, openness to change,required skill sets, subject matterexpertise, and availability. (Apply)4. Team success factorsIdentify and describe the elementsnecessary for successful teams,e.g., management support, cleargoals, ground rules, timelines.(Apply)Certified Six Sigma Black Belt7

B. Team Facilitation1. Motivational techniquesDescribe and apply techniques tomotivate team members. Identifyfactors that can demotivate teammembers and describe techniquesto overcome them. (Apply)2. Team stages of developmentIdentify and describe the classicstages of team development:forming, storming, norming,performing, and adjourning.(Apply)3. Team communicationDescribe and explain the elementsof an effective communicationplan, e.g., audience identification,message type, medium, frequency.(Apply)4. Team leadership modelsDescribe and select appropriateleadership approaches (e.g.,direct, coach, support, delegate)to ensure team success. (Apply)C. Team Dynamics1. Group behaviorsIdentify and use various conflictresolution techniques (e.g.,8Certified Six Sigma Black Beltcoaching, mentoring, intervention)to overcome negative groupdynamics, including dominant andreluctant participants, groupthink,rushing to finish, and digressions.(Evaluate)2. Meeting managementSelect and use various meetingmanagement techniques, includingusing agendas, starting on time,requiring pre-work by attendees,and ensuring that the right peopleand resources are available.(Apply)3. Team decision-making methodsDefine, select, and use varioustools (e.g., consensus, nominalgroup technique, multi-voting) fordecision making. (Apply)D. Team Training1. Needs assessmentIdentify the steps involved toimplement an effective trainingcurriculum: identify skills gaps,develop learning objectives,prepare a training plan, anddevelop training materials.(Understand)

2. DeliveryDescribe various techniquesused to deliver effective training,including adult learning theory,soft skills, and modes of learning.(Understand)3. EvaluationDescribe various techniquesto evaluate training, includingevaluation planning, feedbacksurveys, pre-training and posttraining testing. (Understand)IV. Define (20 Questions)A. Voice of the Customer1. Customer IdentificationIdentify and segment customers andshow how a project will impactboth internal and external customers.(Apply)2. Customer data collectionIdentify and select appropriatedata collection methods (e.g.,surveys, focus groups, interviews,observations) to gather voice ofthe customer data. Ensure thedata collection methods used arereviewed for validity and reliability.(Analyze)3. Customer requirementsDefine, select, and applyappropriate tools to determinecustomer needs and requirements,including critical-to-X (CTX when“X” can be quality, cost, safety,etc.), CTQ tree, quality functiondeployment (QFD), supplier, input,process, output, customer (SIPOC),and Kano model. (Analyze)B. Business Caseand Project Charter1. Business caseDescribe business case justificationused to support projects.(Understand)2. Problem statementDevelop a project problemstatement and evaluate it inrelation to baseline performanceand improvement goals. (Evaluate)3. Project scopeDevelop and review projectboundaries to ensure that theproject has value to the customer.(Analyze)4. Goals and objectivesIdentify specific, measureable,actionable, relevant, and timebound (SMART) goals andobjectives on the basis of theproject’s problem statement andscope. (Analyze)5. Project performance measurementsIdentify and evaluate performancemeasurements (e.g., cost, revenue,delivery, schedule, customersatisfaction) that connect criticalelements of the process to keyoutputs. (Analyze)6. Project charter reviewExplain the importance of havingperiodic project charter reviewswith stakeholders. (Understand)C. Project Management (PM) ToolsIdentify and use the following PM toolsto track projects and document theirprogress. (Evaluate)1. Gantt charts2. Toll-gate reviews3. Work breakdownstructure (WBS)4. RACI model (responsible,accountable, consulted,and informed)D. Analytical ToolsIdentify and use the followinganalytical tools throughout the DMAICcycle. (Apply)1. Affinity diagrams2. Tree diagrams3. Matrix diagrams4. Prioritization matrices5. Activity network diagramsCertified Six Sigma Black Belt9

V. Measure (25 Questions)A. Process Characteristics1. Process flow metricsIdentify and use process flowmetrics (e.g., work in progress(WIP), work in queue (WIQ),touch time, takt time, cycletime, throughput) to determineconstraints. Describe the impactthat “hidden factories” can haveon process flow metrics. (Analyze)2. Process analysis toolsSelect, use, and evaluate varioustools, e.g., value stream maps,process maps, work instructions,flowcharts, spaghetti diagrams,circle diagrams, gemba walk.(Evaluate)B. Data Collection1. Types of dataDefine, classify, and distinguishbetween qualitative and quantitativedata, and continuous and discretedata. (Evaluate)2. Measurement scalesDefine and use nominal, ordinal,interval, and ratio measurementscales. (Apply)3. SamplingDefine and describe sampling

Certified Six Sigma Black Belt 3 The Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) is a professional who can explain Six Sigma philosophies and principles, including supporting systems and tools. A Black Belt should demonstrate team leadership, understand team dynamics, and assign team member roles and responsibilities. Black Belts have a thorough