Fender Application Design Manual - Trelleborg PDF

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T RELL EBORG M A RINE A ND INFR A S T RUC T UREFender ApplicationDesign ManualDESIGN MANUAL

The SmarterApproachThe smarter approachfor a more efficient portTransferring know-howfor smarter LNGThe smarter approachThe smarter approachConnect withThe Smarter ApproachVisit: www.trelleborg.com/marineandinfrastructureConnect: Trelleborg-Marine-and-InfrastructureDiscover: TrelleborgMarineandInfrastructureConverse: er: TrelleborgMarineandinfrastructureMaterials best practicefor a smarter portThe smarter approachThe demanding nature of commercial ports and terminalsmeans you need partnership that provides much morethan technically superior products and technologies. Youneed to work with a partner that combines best practiceexpertise gained through worldwide experience with adeep understanding of local requirements andregulations. At Trelleborg, we call this the SmarterApproach.Our Smarter Approach combines global reach withfeet-on-the-ground local presence, delivering solutionsthat continually enhance your operations.Smart technologies are at the forefront of improvingoperational efficiencies. Trelleborg’s innovative SmartPortoffering deploys the latest in marine technologyapplications to help ports and terminals optimize theiroperations.Connect with a partner that combines smart solutions,proven product capability and industry expertise tomaintain and enhance port and vessel performance.Take a Smarter Approach, with Trelleborg MarineSystems.1

Fender ApplicationDesign ManualTrelleborg Marine Systems is a world leaderin the design and manufacture of advancedmarine fender systems.We provide bespoke solutions for large and complexprojects all over the world. Best practice design andquality materials ensure a long, low maintenanceservice life, no matter how demanding the workingand environmental conditions.All fenders are supplied fully tested and meet PIANC2002 guidelines. Our pneumatic fenders are alsocompletely ISO17357-1:2014 compliant. Our highperformance solutions combine low reaction forceand hull pressure with good angular performanceand rugged construction.Trelleborg’s fender systems can be integrated withSmartPort. SmartPort by Trelleborg is a technologyplatform that connects disparate, data-drivenassets, giving stakeholders a holistic view ofoperations to power communication and decisionmaking.ContentsFender ApplicationDesign ManualIntroduction 5Berthing Environment and EnergyCalculation 11Fender Selection & Fender SystemsDesign 29Fender Accessories 45Fender Performance Testing 55Other Design Considerations 63Take a Smarter Approach to fender performancewith Trelleborg.2

A Smarter Approachat every stageA smarter approach to ConsultationConceptsDESIGNManufactureConsultation from the earliestproject phase to ensure theoptimum fender, mooring,navigation and transfersolutions are specified, withfull technical support fromour global offices.Conceptual design in yourlocal office – with fullknowledge of local standardsand regulations, delivered inyour language – for optimizedport and vessel solutions.Concepts are taken toour Engineering Center ofExcellence where our teamgenerates 3D CAD designs,application-engineeringdrawings, a bill of materials,finite engineering analysisand calculations for both ourfender systems and marinetechnology solutions.Our entire product rangeis manufactured in-house,meaning we have full controlover the design and quality ofeverything we produce. Ourstrategically located, stateof-the-art facilities ensureour global, industry leadingmanufacturing capability.3

TESTINGINSTALLATIONSupportthe futureAcross our entire productrange, stringent testingcomes as standard atevery step in our in-housemanufacturing process. Weensure that life-cycle andperformance of our entireproduct range meet yourspecifications, and more.Dedicated projectmanagement, from solutiondesign right the way throughto on site installation support.We design products andsolutions that always considerease of installation and futuremaintenance requirements.Local support on a truly globalscale, with customer supportteams all over the world. Andthis service doesn’t stop after aproduct is installed. You have ourfull support throughout the entirelifetime of your project, includingcustomized training programs,maintenance and onsite serviceand support.Deploying the latest in smarttechnologies to enablefully-automated, datadriven decision making thatoptimizes port and terminalefficiency. At Trelleborg, we’reconstantly evolving to providethe digital infrastructure ourindustry increasingly needs.When you choose Trelleborg youensure your expectations will be met,because we deliver a truly end-to-endservice – retaining vigilance and fullcontrol at every stage.4

IntroductionAs stated in the British Standard*, fender designshould be entrusted to ‘appropriately qualified andexperienced people’. Fender engineering requires anunderstanding of many areas:Fender systems should beself-protective and reliablyprotect ships andstructures. They should belong-lasting, requiringminimum maintenance, towithstand the harshenvironment in which theyoperate. Ship technology Civil construction methods Steel fabrications Material properties Installation techniques Health and safety Environmental factors Regulations and codes of practice* BS6349 : – Code of Practice for Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems.5

Using this guideExceptionsThis guide addresses many of the frequently askedquestions which arise during fender design. Allmethods described are based on the latestrecommendations of PIANC as well as otherinternationally recognized codes of practice.These guidelines do not encompass unusual ships,extreme berthing conditions and other extremecases for which specialist advice should be sought.Methods are also adapted to working practiceswithin Trelleborg and to suit Trelleborg products.Further design tools and utilities including genericspecifications, energy calculation spreadsheets,fender performance curves and much more can berequested from Trelleborg Marine Systems’ localoffices.DefinitionsRubber fenderUnits made from vulcanized rubber (often with encapsulated steel plates) that absorbsenergy by elastically deforming in compression, bending, shear or a combination ofthese effects.PneumaticfenderUnits comprising fabric reinforced rubber bags filled with air under pressure and thatabsorbs energy from the work done in compressing the air above its normal initialpressure.Foam fenderUnits comprising a closed cell foam inner core with reinforced polymer outer skin thatabsorbs energy by virtue of the work done in compressing the foam.Steel panelA structural steel frame designed to distribute the forces generated during rubber fendercompression.6

Why Fender?‘There is a simple reason to use fenders: it is justtoo expensive not to do so’. These are the openingremarks of PIANC and remain the primary reasonwhy every modern port invests in protecting theirstructures with fender systems.Well-designed fender systems will reduceconstruction costs and will contribute to making theberth more efficient by improving turn-around times.It follows that the longer a fender system lastsand the less maintenance it needs, the better theinvestment.It is rare for the very cheapest fenders to offer thelowest long term cost. Quite the opposite is true. Asmall initial saving will often demand much greaterinvestment in repairs and maintenance over theyears. A cheap fender system can cost many timesmore than a well-engineered, higher quality solutionover the lifetime of the berth as the graphs belowdemonstrate.10 reasons for quality fendering Safety of staff, ships and structures Berths in more exposed locations Much lower lifecycle costs Better ship stability when moored Rapid, trouble-free installation Lower structural loads Quicker turnaround time, greater efficiency Accommodate more ship types and sizes Reduced maintenance and repair More satisfied customersPurchase price Design approvals Delivery delays Installation time Site supportWear & tear Replacements Damage repairs Removal & scrapping Fatigue, corrosion Capital cost Maintenance costCapital cost Maintenance cost FULL LIFE COST7

Design FlowchartFunctionaltype(s) of cargosafe berthing and mooringbetter stability on berthreduction of reaction forceOperationalberthing proceduresfrequency of berthinglimits of mooring and operations(adverse weather)range of vessel sizes, typesspecial features of vessels (flare,beltings, list, etc)allowable hull pressureslight, laden or partly laden shipsstand-off from face of structure(crane reach)fender spacingtype and orientation of waterfrontstructurespecial requirementsspares availabilitySite conditionswind speedwave heightcurrent speedtopographytidal rangeswell and fetchtemperaturecorrosivitychannel depthDesign criteriacodes and standardsdesign vessels for calculationsnormal/abnormal velocitymaximum reaction forcefriction coefficientdesired service lifesafety factors (normal/abnormal)maintenance cost/frequencyinstallation cost/practicalitychemical pollutionaccident responseDesign processShipStructuresApproachLocationCalculation of berthing energyCC berth configuration factorCS softness factorCM virtual mass factorCE eccentricity factorCalculation of fender energy absorptionselection of abnormal berthing safety factorSelection of appropriate fendersDetermination of:energy absorptionreaction forcedeflectionenvironmental factorsangular compressionhull pressurefrictional loadschains etctemperature factorvelocity factorCheck impact on structure and vesselhorizontal and vertical loadingchance of hitting the structure(bulbous bows etc)face of structure to accommodatefenderimplications of installing thefenderbevels/snagging from hullprotrusionsrestraint chainsFinal selection of fenderdetermine main characteristics offendermanufactured in accordance withPIANC guidelinesverification test methodscheck availability of fendertrack record and warrantiesfuture spares availabilityfatigue/durability tests8

The Design ProcessMany factors contribute to the design of a fender system:ShipsShip design evolves constantly – changes in shapesand increasing vessel sizes. Fender systems mustsuit current ships and those expected to arrive inthe foreseeable future.StructuresFenders impose loads on the berthing structure.Many berths are being built in exposed locations,where fender systems can play a crucial role in theoverall cost of construction. Local practice, materialsand conditions may influence the choice of fendersystems.ApproachMany factors will affect how vessels approach theberth, the corresponding kinetic energy and the loadapplied to the structure. Berthing modes may affectthe choice of ship’s berthing speed and the safetyfactor for abnormal conditions.Installation and maintenanceFender systems installation should be consideredearly in the design process. Accessibility formaintenance, wear allowances and the protectivecoatings will all affect the full life cost of systems.Selecting the correct fenders can improveturnaround times and reduce downtime. The safetyof personnel, structures and vessels must beconsidered at every stage – before, during and aftercommissioning.9

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Berthing Environment& Energy calculationAs well as a full suite of engineering programs, wehave expert designers who are experienced in allindustry relevant CAD programs.We have a dedicated teamwho will provide a tailoredsolution for your project,on time and on budget.11

EnvironmentTypical berthing locationsBerthing structures are located in a variety of placesfrom sheltered basins to unprotected, open waters.Local conditions will play a large part in deciding theberthing speeds and approach angles, in turnaffecting the type and size of suitable fenders.Currents and windsNon-tidal basinsTidal basinsWith minor changes in waterlevel, these locations are usuallysheltered from strong winds,waves and currents. Ship sizesmay be restricted due to lockaccess.Larger variations in water level(depends on location) but stillgenerally sheltered from winds,waves and currents. May be usedby larger vessels than non-tidalbasins.Coastal berthsMaximum exposure towinds, waves and currents.Berths generally used bysingle classes of vesselsuch as oil, gas or bulk.River berthsLargest tidal range (depends on site),with greater exposure to winds, wavesand currents. Approach mode may berestricted by dredged channels andCurrent and wind forces can pushvessels onto or off the berth, andmay influence the berthing speed.Once berthed, and provided thevessel contacts several fenders, theforces are usually less critical.However special cases do exist,especially on very soft structures.As a general guide, the probability ofdeep draught vessels (such astankers) affected by current arehigher and and likewise for highfreeboard vessels (such as RoRo andcontainer ships) affected by strongwinds.river bends may complicate berthingmanoeuvres.TidesHRTHATTides vary by area and may have extremesof a fewMHWSMHWNcentimeters (Mediterranean, Baltic) orMSLover 15meters (parts of UK and Canada). Tides willMLWNinfluence the structure’s design and fenderMLWSselection.LATHRT Highest Recorded TideLRTHAT Highest Astronomical TideMHWSMean High Water SpringMHWNMean High Water NeapMLWNMean Low Water NeapMLWSMean Low Water SpringLAT Lowest Astronomical TideLRT Lowest Recorded Tide12

Ship TypesGeneral cargo ship Prefer small gaps between ship and quay to minimize outreach of cranes Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions May occupy berths for long periods Coastal cargo vessels may berth without tug assistanceBulk carrier Need to be close to berth face to minimize shiploader outreach Possible need to warp ships along berth for shiploader to change holds Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions Require low hull contact pressures unless beltedContainer ship Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures Increasing ship beams needs increased crane outreach Some vessels have single or multiple beltings Bulbous bows may strike front piles of structures at large berthing angles Require low hull contact pressures unless beltedOil tanker Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions Require low hull contact pressures Coastal tankers may berth without tug assistanceRoRo ship Ships have own loading ramps – usually stern, slewed or side doors High lateral and/or transverse berthing speeds M anoeuvrability at low speeds may be poor E nd berthing impacts often occur Many different shapes, sizes and condition of beltingsPassenger (cruise) ship Small draft change between laden and empty White or light colored hulls are easily marked Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures Require low hull contact pressures unless beltedFerry Q

design Manual Trelleborg Marine Systems is a world leader in the design and manufacture of advanced marine fender systems. we provide bespoke solutions for large and complex projects all over the world. best practice design and quality materials ensure a long, low maintenance service life, no matter how demanding the working