Presumed Mud Volcanic Disasters In Jenggala And Majapahit . PDF

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Lumpur Sidoarjo - LUSI Expert Gathering andMud Volcanoes in Indonesia and Their Implications - Symposium(Humanitus Sidoarjo Fund & Badan Penanggulangan Lumpur Sidoarjo-BPLS)Sidoarjo-Surabaya, 25-26 May 2011Presumed Mud Volcanic Disasters in Jenggalaand Majapahit Periods of 11th – 15th Centuries,East Java: Constraints from HistoricalChronicles, Folklore, and GeologyAwang Harun SatyanaExecutive Agency for Upstream Oil and Gas Business Activities,Republic of Indonesia

Lumpur Sidoarjo - LUSI Expert Gathering andMud Volcanoes in Indonesia and Their Implications - Symposium(Humanitus Sidoarjo Fund & Badan Penanggulangan Lumpur Sidoarjo-BPLS)Sidoarjo-Surabaya, 25-26 May 2011The Present is the Key to the PastWhat is happening today,happened in the past

Contents Historical Roles of Brantas Delta Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire Eruption of LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Presumed Mud Volcanic Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Conclusions

Contents Historical Roles of Brantas Delta Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire Eruption of LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Presumed Mud Volcanic Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Conclusions

Brantas Delta, East Java

Historical Roles of Brantas DeltaBrantas deltaMEDANGKAHURIPAN Medang929 - 1006 ADKahuripan 1019 - 1042 ADJenggala1042 - 1116 ADMajapahit1293 - 1518 ADLombard (2005)Mansur (1956)

Jenggala (1042 - ?1116 AD)ErlanggaSong of Panji Jenggala in lontar leafvan Hoeve (2005)Cribb (2000)

Majapahit Empire(1293-1518 AD)Raden WijayaCribb (2000)

Oath ofHamukti PalapaGajah Madaand Nusantaravan Hoeve (2005)sr. chief minister Gajah Mada

Majapahit CultureBajangratu TemplecoinKendi AirTikus TempleReliefs of Panataran TemplePanataran Templevan Hoeve (2004, 2005)

Sandhyakala ning Majapahit (Sunset /Fall at Majapahit )Political Conflict ? Geologic Disaster ?

Fall of Jenggala: Several Possibiities Attack from Kediri Kingdom Eruption of volcanoes Arjuno-Penanggungan Mud volcano eruptionFall of Majapahit: Several Possibilites Civil warInternal conflictAttack from Demak Kingdom/SultanateEruption of volcanoes Anjasmoro-WelirangMud volcano eruption

Contents Historical Roles of Brantas Delta Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire Eruption of LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Presumed Mud Volcano Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Conclusions

Mud Eruption and Hot Water “Lumpur Sidoarjo” (LUSI) 29 May 2006 - .?31 August 2007CRISP – National University of Malaysia (2007)BPLS (2007)

before LUSI eruption (2005)

LUSI is erupting (2006)

BPLS (2007)

BPLS (2007)

LUSI is erupting (2010)

(2010)(2010)(2010)(25 May 2011)

Contents Historical Roles of Brantas Delta Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire Eruption of LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Presumed Mud Volcanic Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Conclusions

Presumed Mud Volcanic Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Thesis 1 : Historical Chronicle of “Kitab Pararaton” - disaster“banyu pindah” 1256 Çaka (1334 AD) and disaster “pagununganyar” 1296 Çaka (1374 AD) Thesis 2 : Historical Chronicle of “Serat Kanda” and “BabadTanah Jawi” – suryasengkala (chronowords) “sirna ilangkrtaning bhumi” 1400 Çaka (1478 AD) Thesis 3 : historical chronicle “guntur pawatu gunung” 1403Çaka (1481 AD) Thesis 4 : folklore “Timun Mas” Thesis 5 : geology of Kendeng Depression-Brantas Delta

Thesis no. 1“Pararaton” DisastersPararaton Book of Kings of Singhasari and MajapahitWritten1522-1535 Çaka (completed in 1613 AD), in middle Javanese (Muljana,1968)Related to disasters in Majapahit period, Pararaton noted many disasters: ’banyupindah’, ’gunung anyar’, ’gunung jeblug’, ’lindu’, famine (Brandes, 1897;Mangkudimedja, 1979; Daldjoeni, 1992; Komandoko, 2005): Disaster called “BANYU PINDAH” (1256 Çaka or 1334 AD) Disaster called ”PAGUNUNG ANYAR” (1296 Çaka or 1374 AD) Disasters called ”GUNUNG JEBLUG” (1223, 1307, 1317, 1343, 1373, 1384, 1403 Çakaor: 1301, 1385, 1395, 1421, 1451, 1462, 1481 AD) Disaster of earthquake (1372 Çaka or 1450 AD) Disaster of famine (1348 Çaka or 1426 AD)

Thesis no. 1banyu pindahpagununganyarGn. AnyarCangguPresumedmud volcanobelt inMajapahit timeKelagyanLUSIGn. AnyarRedi AnyarNash (1931)Daldjoeni (1992)Pararaton Disasters and Hydrogeology of Brantas DeltaBelt of Mud Volcanoes: Tunggorono-Jombatan-Segunung-Canggu-Bangsal (25 kms)

Thesis no. 2“Sirna Ilang Krtaning Bhumi” de Graaf (1949) noted the fall of Majapahit in 1400 Çaka or 1478 AD inaccordance with the chronicles of Java history. Year of 1400 Çaka wasdefined by sengkalan (chronowords) “Sirna Ilang Krtaning Bhumi”meaning “0041” in chronicles of Serat/Letter Kanda and Babad TanahJawi (written in early 18th century).Sengkalan (chronowords) is a string of words or sentence where eachword has numerical value, composed sequentially from front to backas units, tens, hundreds, thousands (Dinas Kebudayaan DI Yogyakarta,2005).Sengkalan (chronowords) was inherited by ancestors to make peopleof later generations would remember easily historical events occurredat the year of sengkalan tells. Accordingly, sengkalan (chronowords)has two meaning: number of year, and event happening at the year.Each word in sengkalan has both number value and proper meaning.

Thesis no. 2“Sirna Ilang Krtaning Bhumi” Sengkalan ”Sirna Ilang Krtaning Bumi, derived from: ”sirna” hilang (vanish) number 0, ”ilang hilang” number 0,”krtaning/krta ning” dibuat (made) pekerjaan membuat (actof doing) number 4, ”bumi/bhumi” bumi (Earth) number 1,sequentially sengkalan ”Sirna Ilang Kertaning Bumi” hasnumber values of 0041, read as year of 1400 Çaka or 1478 AD. Wojowasito (1980) noted “krta” /kerta was derived fromSanskrit, with various meanings: 1) has been done, completelydone, over, good, safe, prosperous, service. 2) dice cube withfour eyes; “ning” is linguistic genitive particle (belonging)attached into nomina/substantive (Kridalaksana, 2001)

Thesis no. 2“Sirna Ilang Krtaning Bhumi” “sirna ilang krtaning bhumi” can be interpreted as :(1) “musnah hilang sudah selesai pekerjaan bumi”(vanish completely due to Earth’s work) or (2)“musnah hilang kemakmuran bumi/di bumi” (the endof prosperity on Earth). Interpretation 1 has ameaning related to natural disaster. Interpretation 2could have a meaning that the fall of Majapahitcaused the end of prosperity, something related topolitical conflict or war.

Thesis no. 3“Guntur Pawatugunung” ”Guntur Pawatugunung” was an event according to Ricklefs (1999)occurred in 1403 Çaka (1481 AD). The event was mostlyinterpreted as volcanic eruption (Berg, 1962; Purwanto, 1983;Daldjoeni, 1992; Ricklefs, 1999).C.C Berg further interpreted that Guntur Pawatugunung was anatural mark indicating the coming of new kingdom in Java toreplace the Majapahit Empire (c.q.: Demak Kingdom/Sultanate).Year of “sirna ilang krtaning bhumi” (1400 Çaka) and “gunturpawatugunung” (1403 Çaka) was almost coeval – three years differonly – may be a mistake of noting, it could be two events related toeach other in the same year.

“Guntur Pawatugunung”Thesis no. 3van Lawich (1936), Daldjoeni (1992)The event of ’guntur pawatugunung’ , instead of revealing magmaticvolcanic eruption, it can be related to mud volcanic eruption. A mudvolcano eruption may look like magmatic volcanic eruption. In area wherethere are magmatic volcanoes and mud volcanoes, both volcaniceruptions can be associated to each other.

Thesis no. 4Folklore “Timun Mas”Timun Mas means ‘golden cucumber’Danandjaja (1984)Ashari (1999)

Thesis no. 4Folklore “Timun Mas” Folklore (people story) ia a product of culture owned by acollective (group of people/ society) distributed and inheritedtraditionally from one generation to other generation (Danandjaja,1984). Folklore brings something considered important toremember by people living at the time of the folklore’s eventoccurred. Prose of people story can be subdivided into threegroups: myth, legend and folktale. Folklore of East Java ”TimunMas” can be clasified as a legend or folktale.Folklore ”Timun Mas” is considered to develop by the time of thefall of Jenggala Kingdom (1116 AD). This is based on the peoplebelief that ”Timun Mas” was actually Dewi Sekar Taji, who latermarried to Panji Asmara Bangun, the son of Prabu LembuAmiluhur, King of Jenggala.

Folklore “Timun Mas”widow Mbok SirniearthquakeThesis no. 4giant cucumber Timunbears TimunMasMascucumber fieldAshari (1999)bamboo forest

Thesis no. 4Folklore “Timun Mas”thrown salt to become sea lakethrown ‘terasi’ to become hot mud sea‘terasi’ – a condiment made from pounded and fermented shrimp or small fishAshari (1999)

Thesis no. 4Folklore “Timun Mas” The folklore Timun Mas developed in Jenggala’s period(currently Sidoarjo Regency), bears similarity with elementsrelated to present elements of LUSI, namely: earthquake, saltedsea lake and hot mud sea. The folklore Timun Mas coud tellsomething related to mud volcano eruption in the period ofJenggala Kingdom (each legend bears a meaning of ”dichtungund wahrheit” – fiction and fact).River Porong was not a natural river. It was an artificial river(dig stream) branched from River Brantas made during the 11thor 12th century to reduce flood area of Surabaya and to irrigatepaddy fields in Porong, Sidoarjo area (Pramudya Toer, 1999).River Porong was also meant to displace mud flooded Jenggalaarea from mud volcano eruption (perfectly similar with currentcondition of displacing LUSI mud to Kali Porong).

Thesis no. 5Geology of Kendeng Depression–Brantas Deltathe best elisional basin in IndonesiaKendeng depressionPuslitbang Geologi (2000)van Bemmelen (1949)

Active Anticlinorium Belts of Brantas DeltaI. Jombang,II. Nunung Ngoro, III. Ngelom-Watudakon, IV. Pucangan, V. KambanganKedungwaru, VI. Guyangan-Sepanjang, VII. Ngimbang-Wonokromo. 1. Jombang, 2. Munung, 3.Ngoro, 4.Ngelom, 5. Watudakon, 6. Gunung Pucangan, 7. Kambangan, 8. Kedungwaru, 9.Guyangan, 10. Sepanjang, 11. Ngimbang, 12.Wonokromo (Nash, 1931; Daldjoeni, 1992).

Mazzini et al. (2007)

Thesis no. 5Geology of Kendeng Depression – Brantas DeltaMud Volcanoes of Kendeng Depression

Capital cities of Jenggala andMajapahit were located among mudvolcanoes of Kendeng DepressionKuwuGunung AnyarJenggalaMajapahitSangiranLuSiBelt of mud volcanoes of Jenggala – Majapahitperiods (based on Kitab Pararaton)

Contents Historical Roles of Brantas Delta Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire Eruption of LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Presumed Mud Volcanic Eruptions inJenggala and Majapahit Periods Conclusions

Conclusions Brantas Delta had significant historical roles in rise and fall ofkingdoms/empire in East Java in around 950 AD – 1500 AD.Four kingdoms/empire: Medang, Kahuripan, Jenggala andMajapahit were located in Brantas Delta area.According to history, the fall of Jenggala in 1116 AD wascaused by annexation from Kediri kingdom. The fall ofMajapahit in 1478 AD was due to internal conflict and an attackby Demak Kingdom. However, based on some historicalchronicles, folklore, and geologic conditions of the areas; it isinterpreted that natural disaster such as mud volcanic eruptionplayed significant effects to weaken Jenggala and Majapahitbefore annexation by other kingdoms.

Conclusions (cont’d) Based on historical sources (Kitab Pararaton, SeratKanda, Babad Tanah Jawi), folklore, geology of KendengDepression and Brantas Delta, and analogy to LUSI eventoccurring in the area where Jenggala Kingdom andMajapahit Empire located, it is presumed that mudvolcanic eruptions had occurred in the Jenggala andMajapahit periods. These disasters are considered tohave significant effect to subdue Jenggala andMajapahit.

Conclusions (cont’d) Presumed mud volcano eruptions during the Jenggala andMajapahit periods are constrained by:1.Natural disasters in Kitab Pararaton : banyu pindah (1256Çaka / 1334 AD) and pagunung anyar (1296 Çaka / 1374 AD)and other related disaster including earthquake, volcaniceruption and famine,2.Suryasengkala (chronowords) ”sirna ilang krtaning bhumi”(1400 Çaka / 1478 AD),3.Chronicle ”guntur pawatugunung” (1403 Çaka / 1481 AD),4.Folklore Jenggala ”Timun Mas”, and5.Geology of the Kendeng Depression –Brantas Delta.Analogy to disaster of LUSI (the present is the key to the past)

Thank you for your attentionAcknowledgments: Management of BPMIGAS Prof. Dr. Hardi Prasetyo & group (BPLS) Jeffrey Richards & group (Humanitus Sidoarjo Fund)further info: [email protected] pictures are taken from “Gajah Mada” (Langit Kresna Hariadi & Tiga Serangkai Solo, 2006)

Based on historical sources (Kitab Pararaton, Serat Kanda, Babad Tanah Jawi), folklore, geology of Kendeng Depression and Brantas Delta, and analogy to LUSI event occurring in the area where Jenggala Kingdom and Majapahit Empire located, it is presumed that mud volcanic eruptions had occurred in the Jenggala and Majapahit periods.