Serket (2009) vol. 11(3/4): 93-101.Genus Uroctea Dufour, 1820 (Araneae: Oecobiidae) in TurkeyKadir Boğaç Kunt 1, Ersen Aydın Yağmur 2, Tarık Danışman 3,Abdullah Bayram 3 and Rahşen S. Kaya 412Eserköy Sitesi, 9/A Blok, No:7, TR-06635, Ümitköy Ankara, TurkeyEge University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Zoology Section, TR-35100, İzmir, Turkey34Kırıkkale University, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Department of Biology, TR-71450 Yahşihan, Kırıkkale, TurkeyUludağ University, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department of Biology, TR-16059 Nilüfer, Bursa, TurkeyCorresponding e-mail address: [email protected] Uroctea Dufour, 1820 species of Turkey are presented in this study. Untilnow, only U. durandi (Latreille, 1809) is known from Turkey. Here, we record for thefirst time from Turkey U. thaleri Rheims, Santos & van Harten, 2007 which wasoriginally described from Yemen. All available information on these little knownOecobiidae species is presented along with comments on their distribution pattern inTurkey. Also, some characteristic features with photographs of genitalia and generalhabitus of both sexes are presented.Keywords: Uroctea durandi, Uroctea thaleri, Oecobiidae, Spiders, Turkey.IntroductionThe old world genus Uroctea Dufour, 1820 is one of the six genera currentlybelonging to the family Oecobiidae. It was described by the French naturalist Léon JeanMarie Dufour in 1820 and includes 18 species which are predominantly distributed in thePalaearctic region (Platnick, 2009).Roewer (1959) first mentioned Uroctea durandi (Latreille, 1809) from Adanaprovince of Turkey. However, neither a specimen nor a figure was shown in his paper,this makes comparison with other species impossible. Afterwards, Topçu et al. (2006)have been reported U. durandi from Adana, Mersin and Niğde provinces.In the present study, U. durandi (Latreille, 1809) and U. thaleri Rheims, Santos &van Harten, 2007 of genus Uroctea were studied. U. thaleri is recorded for the first timein the Turkish araneofauna.
Material and methodsSpecimens from the following institutions were examined/cited. Abbreviations,cities and curators are as follows:MNHN Muséum National d Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (C. Rollard);MTAS Museum of Turkish Arachnological Society, Ankara, Turkey (K.B. Kunt);OUMNH Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, England (Z. Simmons);ZMB Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (J. Dunlop).Specimens were photographed using an HP Photosmart R707 camera attached toan Euromex ZE.1654 stereomicroscope. For SEM photographs, the materials wereexamined at an accelerating voltage of 15 kv under Jeol JSM 6360 LV Scanning ElectronMicroscope, and the electron micrographs were recorded.All measurements are in millimetres. Epigynes were dissected and submerged in5% KOH to study internal structures.ResultsFamily Oecobiidae Blackwall, 1862Genus Uroctea Dufour, 1820Dufour, Ann. gén. sci. phys. v, p. 198, 1820;Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 451, 1893Uroctea durandi (Latreille, 1809) (Fig. 1).Material examined: Antalya Province. 2 females, Fener Quarter, Muratpaşa District(36 50'52.91"N, 30 46'12.27"E), 02.X.2008, K.B. Kunt leg.; 1 female, Mahmutlar Town,Alanya District (36 29'17.18"N, 32 07'3.90"E), 26.IX.2009, K.B. Kunt leg. BursaProvince. 2 females, Firuzköy, Orhaneli District (39 56'23.79"N, 29 06'23.21"E),18.VI.2007, R.S. Kaya leg. Erzincan Province. 1 female, Kozlupınar Village, KemaliyeDistrict (39 12'29.61"N, 38 34'3.20"E), 29.IX.2008, M. Elverici & C. Elverici leg.Isparta Province. 1 subadult female, 1 juvenile, National Park of Kovada Lake, EğirdirDistrict (37 37'45"N, 30 51'41"E), 10.V.2007, R.S. Kaya leg.; 4 females, AyazmanaQuarter (37 44'46.46"N, 30 34'57.88"E), 09.III.2008, K. Bozkurt leg. İzmir Province. 1female, Karagöl, Yamanlar Mountain, Karşıyaka District (38 33'23.30"N, 27 13'2.17"E),04.X.2008, E.A. Yağmur & S. Anlaş leg. Mersin Province. 1 female, Sertavul Pass, MutDistrict (36 49'9.55"N, 33 19'14.44"E), 06.XI.2004, K.B. Kunt & A.E. Yaprak leg.; 1female, 1 juvenile, Çamlıyayla, Tarsus District (37 09'58.53"N, 34 36'14.93"E),12.V.2008, R.S. Kaya leg.; 1 female, Değirmendere Village, Silifke District (36 25'53"N,33 45'21"E), 13.V.2008, R.S. Kaya leg. Niğde Province. 1 female, 2 juveniles, FertekQuarter (37 58'43.71"N, 34 37'15.55"E), 12.IX.2008, K.B. Kunt leg.Comments: U. durandi has a circum-Mediterranean distribution. It is known in Andorra,Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Portuguese, Slovenia and Spain(Helsdingen, 2006). It has been also recorded from England (Selden, 2003). U. durandi ismainly distributed in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey (Map 1). Themorphological and genitalia features of our samples collected from Marmara and EastAnatolian region are the same of our samples collected from Aegean and Mediterraneanregions. Furthermore, no differences have been observed between Turkish populationsamples and type material.Natural History: Specimens were collected in their tent-like webs under stones from dryareas. We observed the remains of millipedes in their webs (Fig. 2).94
Map. 1: Distribution of Uroctea species in Turkey. Circles: sampling localities of U.durandi. Squares: sampling localities of U. thaleri. Triangle: Roewer’s record (1959).Fig. 1: Uroctea durandi (Latreille, 1809).Male, Paratype MNHN AR 10145: A. Habitus, dorsal view. C. Male palp.Female, Holotype MNHN AR 10145: B. Habitus, dorsal view. D. Epigyne, ventral view.E. Internal genitalia, dorsal view. Scale lines: A, B 1 mm; C, D, E 0.5 mm.95
Fig. 2: Tent-like webs of Uroctea durandi. Photos by courtesy of Mr. Kağan Bozkurt,from Ayazmana Quarter, Isparta Province, Turkey.Uroctea thaleri Rheims, Santos & van Harten, 2007 (Figs. 3-5).Material examined: Adıyaman Province. 1 subadult male, Aydınlar Village, GergerDistrict, 20.IV.2008, E.A. Yağmur & E. Tezcan leg. Batman Province. 1 subadultfemale, Gercüş District (37 37'28.6"N, 41 24'46.8"E), 17.V.2009, E.A. Yağmur & E.Ulupınar leg. Diyarbakır Province. 3 subadult females, Yukarı Kuyulu Village, ErganiDistrict (38 35'8.94"N, 39 15'1.02"E), 13.IV.2008, E.A. Yağmur, G. Çalışır & M.Özkörük leg.; 1 female, Kalkan Village, Eğil District, 14 km southwest (38 08'30.13"N,40 04'18.99"E), 13.IV.2008, E.A. Yağmur, G. Çalışır & M. Özkörük leg. GaziantepProvince. 1 subadult male, Hanağzı Village, İslahiye District (37 04'4.51"N,36 36'16.79"E), 14.V.2005, E.A. Yağmur & M. Pehlivan leg.; 1 female (MTAS/Oec:0805), 1 male (MTAS/Oec: 0806), Şahanlık Hill, Huzurlu Plateau, İslahiye District,14.VI.2008, E.A. Yağmur & E. Tezcan leg.; Hatay Province. 1 juvenile, ÇakıryiğitVillage, Reyhanlı District (36 15'45.31"N, 36 36'24.83"E), 14.IV.2007, E.A. Yağmur, G.Çalışır & M. Yalçın leg.; 2 females, 3 juveniles, Kıcı Village, Belen District(36 29'3.92"N, 36 16'6.84"E), 13.VII.2007, E.A. Yağmur & G. Çalışır leg.; 2 subadultfemales, Aktepe Town, Hassa District (36 41'55.55"N, 36 29'58.83"E), 05.V.2008, E.A.Yağmur, G. Çalışır, E. Ulupınar & V. Ülgezer leg.; 2 females, 1 subadult male, BelenPass, 10.V.2008, E.A. Yağmur, G. Çalışır & E. Ulupınar leg. KahramanmaraşProvince. 1 subadult male, Başkonuş Plateau (37 34'6.55"N, 36 35'4.94"E), 21.VI.2007,E.A. Yağmur & G. Çalışır leg.; 1 juvenile, Narlı Town, Pazarcık District, 07.III.2008,E.A. Yağmur & G. Çalışır leg.; 2 subadult males, Büyükkızılcık Town, Göksun District(38 12'1.54"N, 36 42'17.83"E), 30.V.2008, E.A. Yağmur & M.S. Kılıç leg. MalatyaProvince. 1 male, Reşadiye Village, Doğanşehir District, 03.V.2008, E.A. Yağmur & E.Tezcan leg. Osmaniye Province, Hasanbeyli District, Kuşçubeli Pass (37 07'39.21"N,96
36 33'31.58"E), 24.IV.2008, E.A. Yağmur & E. Tezcan leg. Siirt Province. 1 female,Baykan District (38 03'08"N, 41 46'50"E), 18.V.2009, E.A. Yağmur & M. Uslu leg.Şanlıurfa Province. 1 male, Harran Ruins, Harran (36 52'12.08"N; 39 01'51.47"E),12.V.2004, R.S. Kaya leg.; 1 female, Karaca Hamlet, Karahisar Village (37 03'48.72"N;39 15'45.12"E), 09.V.2006, E.A. Yağmur & M.Z. Yıldız leg.; 1 female, 1 juvenile, AşağıGöklü Village, Halfeti District (37 19'35"N; 38 02'4"E), 21.XII.2007, E.A. Yağmur leg.;3 juveniles, Siverek District, a bridge about 20 km south of Siverek, 11.IV.2008, E.A.Yağmur, G. Çalışır & M. Özkörük leg.Fig. 3: Abdominal patterns of Uroctea thaleri Rheims, Santos & van Harten, 2007 fromTurkey. A. Male. B. Female. C. Subadult male.97
Comments: According to Rheims et al. (2007), "The males of Uroctea thaleri can bedistinguished from other species of the genus by the extremely wide tegular apophysis 1and by the long and apically rounded proximal tegular lobe. Females can be distinguishedby the long and parallel insemination and fertilization ducts, both describing a medianloop between the epigynal plate and the spermathecae. An additional diagnostic characteris a blind ending duct emerging basally from the fertilization ducts."Fig. 4: Male palp of U. thaleri (MTAS/Oec: 0806). A, D. Left palp, prolateral view.B. Embolus C. Right palp, prolateral view. A-C: SEM. (D, Scale line 0.5 mm).Abbreviations: E embolus; TA1–3 tegular apophyses; TL tegular lobe.Unfortunately, despite of our efforts, we could not examine the type specimens ofU. thaleri to make comparison between them and our samples. After examining theillustrations of the type specimens of U. thaleri presented by Rheims et al. (2007, Figs. 58, 11-12), there is no doubt that our Uroctea samples collected from East Mediterraneanand South East Anatolian region belong to U. thaleri. Their abdomens are dorsally darkgrey with creamy spots or marks (Fig. 3) and they have the same genitalia of male (Fig.4) and female (Fig. 5).U. thaleri was described by Rheims et al. (2007) from Yemen. However, it hasalso been recorded from India, Iran and Israel. In fact, it is not unexpected to find U.thaleri in Turkey, taking in consideration its known distribution range. However, therecord of U. thaleri from Israel and the seven creamy abdominal spots of juvenileTurkish samples (Fig. 3C) led us to ask a question: Do our U. thaleri specimens belong toU. septempunctata species which description was based on juvenile specimens by O.P.Cambridge (1872) from Palestine and Syria (Lebanon)?In 1872, O.P.-Cambridge described U. septempunctata as follows: “This speciesis similar to C. limbata in form and structure [Fig. 6A, B]. The whole of the fore part ofthe spider is yellow, but of a clearer, brighter hue than in that species; the abdomen is dullblack, but the upperside, instead of being surrounded by a continuous border of a whitishyellow colour, has in its place a marginal row of seven large yellow spots; four of these98
form nearly a square on its fore half, and the three others are in a triangle above thespinners, the apex directed backwards [Fig. 6C]. It is possible that in some examplesthese spots may become nearly confluent, and so form a band very similar to that on theabdomen of C. limbata; but still some other specific characters, such as a slight differencein the relative position of the eyes, and the less dense armature of the legs with hairs,bristles, and fine spines, seem to show that it is quite distinct from that species, of whichsix adult examples found in 1864 at Alexandria (Egypt) presented no variation whateverin the uniformity and continuity of the abdominal border.An immature male was found at Jerusalem under a piece of detached rock in thevalley of Hinnom, an immature female in a similar situation near Ain Ata, and another atTiberias.”Fig. 5: Epigyne of U. thaleri (MTAS/Oec: 0805). A. Ventral view. B. Internal genitalia,dorsal view. (Scale line 0.5 mm). C. Ditto, SEM, arrow shows blind ending duct.After O.P.-Cambridge’s description, the Italian arachnologist Pietro Pavesi (1895)published a short description, without genitalia illustrations, based on an adult femalecollected from Hermon Mountain in Palestine/Israel. Pavesi (1895) mentioned that hisadult female specimen is deposited in “Museo di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata”, butwe learned that the invertebrate collection of this museum was moved to “MuseoRegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino” many years ago. Unfortunately, we could not geta response to our correspondence with the Museum of Torino.Comparing our U. thaleri specimens with a type specimen of U. septempunctata(OUMNH) and the Holotype of U. limbata (C.L. Koch, 1843) (ZMB), we observed thatour Turkish samples of U. thaleri are similar to the first species. Especially, theabdominal pattern with seven spots of juvenile U. thaleri and U. septempunctata samples99
(Fig. 3C, 6C). Also, arrangement of the eyes and position of the spines and hairs on thelegs are similar in these two species.As a result, we suggest that U. thaleri and U. septempunctata may be the samespecies. We could not obtain a new comparison material of U. septempunctata fromIsrael to be able to reach to definite result. But, we believe that our suggestions andfindings will make some contribution to revisional studies and resolve some taxonomicalproblems of this genus in the future.Natural History: The habitat selection and web designs are similar to that of U. durandi.They run very quickly when disturbed.Fig. 6: Uroctea limbata (C.L. Koch, 1843) Male, Holotype ZMB 2121: A. Habitus,dorsal view. B. Male palp, prolateral view.Uroctea septempunctata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) OUMNH 506-4671. C. Habitus ofjuvenile female, dorsal view. Scale lines: A, C 1 mm; B 0.5 mm.100
AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank the following colleagues who kindly provided us with thetype material: Dr. Christine Rollard (Paris, France), Dr. Zoe Simmons (Oxford, U.K.),Dr. Jason Dunlop (Berlin, Germany) and Mrs. Janet Beccaloni (London, U.K.). Dr. PeterJäger (Frankfurt am Main, Germany), Dr. Marco Isaia (Torino, Italy) and Dr. Paul Selden(Manchester, England) provided old literature. For SEM photographs, we used facilitiesof Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Gazi, Ankara (Dr. Metin Gürüand Dr. Çetin Çakanyıldırım). We want to express our thanks for the valuable commentsof Mr. Hisham El-Hennawy (Cairo, Egypt) and Dr. Adalberto J. Santos (Minas Gerais,Brazil) for their valuable comments. We also thank Mr. Kağan Bozkurt (Isparta, Turkey),Mr. Mert Elverici (Ankara, Turkey) and Mr. Can Elverici (Ankara, Turkey) for providingmaterial of U. durandi collected from different regions of Turkey. Finally, we like tothank Dr. Sinan Anlaş (İzmir, Turkey), Gökhan Çalışır (Gaziantep, Turkey), ErmanTezcan (Gaziantep, Turkey), Mehmet Özkörük (Gaziantep, Turkey), Mustafa Pehlivan(Gaziantep, Turkey), Mehmet Yalçın (Hatay, Turkey), Ekber Ulupınar (İstanbul,Turkey), Volkan Ülgezer (İstanbul, Turkey), Mehmet Sait Kılıç (Gaziantep, Turkey),Mustafa Uslu (Siirt, Turkey) and Zafer Sancak (Kırıkkale, Turkey) for their valuable helpduring this study.ReferencesCambridge, O.P.-. 1872. General list of the spiders of Palestine and Syria, with descriptions ofnumerous
Serket (2009) vol. 11(3/4): 93-101. Genus Uroctea Dufour, 1820 (Araneae: Oecobiidae) in Turkey Kadir Boğaç Kunt 1, Ersen Aydın Yağmur 2, Tarık Danışman 3, Abdullah Bayram 3 and Rahşen S ...