2001-09 Scenario Authoring And Visualization For Advanced . PDF

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Calhoun: The NPS Institutional ArchiveTheses and DissertationsThesis Collection2001-09Scenario Authoring and Visualization forAdvanced Graphical Environments (SAVAGE)Nicklaus, Shane D.Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate Schoolhttp://hdl.handle.net/10945/2016

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, CaliforniaTHESISSCENARIO AUTHORING AND VISUALIZATIONFOR ADVANCED GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENTS(SAVAGE)byShane D. NicklausSeptember 2001Thesis Advisor:Thesis Co-Advisors:Don BrutzmanCurtis BlaisDan BogerApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEForm Approved OMB No. 0704-0188Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, includingthe time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, andcompleting and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or anyother aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washingtonheadquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project(0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)2. REPORT DATESeptember 20014. TITLE AND SUBTITLESCENARIO AUTHORING AND VISUALIZATION FORADVANCED GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENTS (SAVAGE)3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVEREDMaster’s Thesis5. FUNDING NUMBERS6. AUTHORNicklaus, Shane D.7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)Naval Postgraduate SchoolMonterey, CA 93943-50009. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)IDANUWC8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIONREPORT NUMBER10. SPONSORING / MONITORINGAGENCY REPORT NUMBER11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTESThe views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department ofDefense or the US Government.12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT12b. DISTRIBUTION CODEApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited.13. ABSTRACTToday’s planning and modeling systems use two-dimensional (2D) representations of the threedimensional (3D) battlespace. This presents a challenge for planners, commanders, and troops to understand thetrue nature of the battlespace. This thesis shows how 3D visualization can give both operation planners andexecutors a better understanding of the battlespace that can augment today’s 2D systems. Automatic creation ofa 3D model for an amphibious operation allows the planner to view an operation order as a whole, from differentperspectives. Recommended changes can be made and their effects immediately known. Warfighters can use thesame tools for mission preparation and review.The United States and NATO nations use the Land C2 Information Exchange Data Model (LC2IEDM),formally known as the Generic Hub, as a common method for exchanging data between independent systems. Aspart of the Scenario Authoring and Visualization for Advanced Graphical Environments (SAVAGE) project, thisresearch presents an integrated Web access and 3D visualization strategy for Department of Defense (DOD)tactical messaging and operation orders using the Generic Hub data model and the Extensible Markup Language(XML). A number of alternative yet consistent ways to represent an amphibious operation scenario demonstratethe power, flexibility and scalability of the SAVAGE approach.Operation Order, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML),Extensible Markup Language (XML), Extensible 3D (X3D), Extensible StylesheetLanguage (XSL), US Message Text Format (USMTF), XML-MTF, Land Command andContol Information Exchange Model (LC2IEDM), Generic Hub (GH), Amphibious Raid15. NUMBER OFPAGES17. SECURITYUnclassified20. LIMITATIONOF ABSTRACTUL14. SUBJECT TERMS18. SECURITYUnclassified19. SECURITYUnclassified16. PRICE CODEStandard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)NSN 7540-01-280-5500Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18ii

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ABSTRACTToday’s planning and modeling systems use two-dimensional (2D)representations of the three-dimensional (3D) battlespace. This presents a challenge forplanners, commanders, and troops to understand the true nature of the battlespace. Thisthesis shows how 3D visualizatio n can give both operation planners and executors abetter understanding of the battlespace that can augment today’s 2D systems. Automaticcreation of a 3D model for an amphibious operation allows the planner to view anoperation order as a whole, from different perspectives. Recommended changes can bemade and their effects immediately known. Warfighters can use the same tools formission preparation and review.The United States and NATO nations use the Land C2 Information ExchangeData Model (LC2IEDM), formally known as the Generic Hub, as a common method forexchanging data between independent systems. As part of the Scenario Authoring andVisualization for Advanced Graphical Environments (SAVAGE) project, this researchpresents an integrated Web access and 3D visualization strategy for Department ofDefense (DOD) tactical messaging and operation orders using the Generic Hub datamodel and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A number of alternative yetconsistent ways to represent an amphibious operation scenario demonstrate the power,flexibility and scalability of the SAVAGE approach.v

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TABLE OF CONTENTSI.INTRODUCTION.1A.PROBLEM STATEMENT .1B.OVERVIEW.1C.MOTIVATION .3D.OBJECTIVES .4E.ORGANIZATION OF THESIS .4II.BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK .7A.INTRODUCTION.7B.AMPHIBIOUS OPERATION .71.Definition.72.Types of Operations .73.Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) .8a.Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).8b.Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU).8c. Marine Expeditionary Unit Special Operations Capable(MEU(SOC)) .9d.Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).9C.AMPHIBIOUS PLANNING DOCUMENTS .91.Operation Order (OPORD) .92.Air Tasking Order (ATO) .10D.US MESSAGE TEXT FORMAT (USMTF).101.Extensible Markup Language-Message Text Format (XMLMTF) .11E.COMBINED ARMS ANALYS IS TOOL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY(COMBAT XXI).13F.SUMMARY.13III.OPERATION ORDERS AND TACTICAL MESSAGING .15A.INTRODUCTION.15B.AMPHIBIOUS INVASION DESCRIPTION.15C.OPERATION ORDER DRAFTING AND DESIGN.171.Heading .182.Body .18a. Situation .18b. Mission .20c. Execution.20d. Administration and Logistics.21e. Command and Signal.233.Ending .24D.OPERATION ORDER METHODOLOGY.241.Unit Operation Order as a Word Document.25vii

E.F.G.2.USMTF “Enhanced” Order.263.XML-MTF Order .30OPERATION ORDER LIMITATIONS .311.Inconsistent Applications .322.Acronyms .323.Inconsistent Semantics.334.Applicability .335.Document References .34EXTENSIBLEMARKUPLANGUAGE-MESSAGETEXTFORMAT (XML-MTF).341.Public Beta Release 1.02 of MTF2XML Converter.35SUMMARY.35IV. MODELING AMPHIBIOUS PLANNING AND OPERATIONS USING THENATO LAND COMMAND AND CONTROL INFORMATIONEXCHANGE MODEL (LC2IEDM) .37A.INTRODUCTION.37B.DATA INTERCHANGE .37C.GENERIC HUB .39D.LAND C2 INFORMATION EXCHANGE DATA MODEL(LC2IEDM) DATA SPECIFICATION .40E.AMPHIBIOUS MODELING USING LC2IEDM.42F.LC2IEDM AND XML-MTF .47G.SUMMARY.47V. WEB ACCESS AND XML.49A.INTRODUCTION.49B.WHY USE A WEB APPROACH? .49C.EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE (XML) .501.Overview.502.XML Components .52a. Elements and Attributes.52b. XML Schema .53c. Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL).54D.XML SCHEMAS FOR THE AMPHIBIOUS-RAID .54E.XML-MTF TO GENERIC HUB USING XSL .56F.RELATED EFFORTS .561.Semantic Web.562.Task Force Web (TFW) .573.Geography Markup Language (GML) .57G.SUMMARY.58VI.3D GRAPHICS AND VISUALIZATION .61A.INTRODUCTION.61B.3D MODELING AND VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES .611.Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) .61a. Visual Nodes.62viii

C.D.VII.b. Grouping Nodes .64c. Viewing Nodes.64d. Animation Nodes.64e. Sensor Nodes .65f. Script Node.66g. PROTO and EXTERNPROTO Definitions .662.GeoVRML.66a. GeoElevationGrid.68b. GeoLocation .68c. GeoOrigin .69d. GeoPositionInterpolator .69e. GeoViewpoint.693.DIS-Java-VRML.70EXTENSIBLE 3D (X3D).70SUMMARY.72EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS .75A.INTRODUCTION.75B.SCENARIO AUTHORING .751.Motivation.

Extensible Markup Language (XML), Extensible 3D (X3D), Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL), US Message Text Format (USMTF), XML-MTF, Land Command and Contol Information Exchange Model (LC2IEDM), Generic Hub (GH), Amphibious Raid 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY Unclassified 18. SECURITY Unclassified 19. SECURITY Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev ...