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INTERMEDIATE RUSSIAN:A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOKIntermediate Russian: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible and practical grammar with related exercises in a single volume.Using a wide variety of texts from Russian sources, Intermediate Russianenables students to gain an insight into contemporary Russian societyand culture whilst strengthening their fluency in the language. Its 18 unitspresent a broad range of grammatical topics, illustrated by exampleswhich serve as models for the wide-ranging and varied exercisesthat follow. These exercises enable the student to master the relevantgrammar points.Features include: tests and exercises reflecting contemporary spoken Russian concise grammatical explanations full key to the exercises detailed indexIntermediate Russian, like its sister volume, Basic Russian, is ideal forboth independent study and use in class. The two books comprise acompendium of the essentials of Russian grammar.John Murray and Sarah Smyth are Lecturers in Russian at TrinityCollege, Dublin.

Titles of related interest published by RoutledgeBasic Russian: A Grammar and Workbookby John Murray and Sarah SmythColloquial Russian: The Complete Course for Beginnersby Svetlana Le Fleming and Susan E. KayRussian Learners’ Dictionaryby Nicholas Brown


First published 2001by Routledge11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EESimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis GroupThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2001. 2001 John Murray and Sarah SmythAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprintedor reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical,or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying and recording, or in any information storage orretrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataMurray, John (John Damian)Intermediate Russian: a grammar and workbook / John Murray & Sarah Smyth.p. cm.1. Russian language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Russianlanguage—Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Smyth, Sarah. II. Title.PG2112.M874 2000491.782′421—dc21ISBN 0–415–22102–1 (hbk)ISBN 0–415–22103–X (pbk)ISBN 0-203-18430-0 Master e-book ISBNISBN 0-203-18457-2 (Glassbook Format)00–031058

To Stanford and Francesca

CONTENTSIntroductionAcknowledgementsSourcesLists of abbreviationsxixiiixvxviiInteracting1 Naming, greetings and congratulatingNamingFunctions: greetings and congratulatingLetter etiquetteFunction: пусть2 Thanking, apologising, requesting and advisingThankingApologisingAsking a third party to do something: просить/попроситьGiving advice: советовать/посоветоватьPhone etiquette1163Possession, desire and making suggestionsExpressing possession: у меняExpressing desire/subjunctive: чтобыMaking suggestions: modalsVerbal nouns: -ание, -ениеInfinitive constructions: написать ей письмо?Partitive genitive: налить вам водки?254Seeking and giving clarificationThe interrogative: какойRelative clauses 1: который, кто, чтоSoftening the question37

viiiContentsAsking questions: лиIndefinite particles: -то and -нибудь5Identifying and describing peopleRelative clauses 2: который, ктоHe who/whoever: тот, ктоThe interrogative and conjunction: как6 Going placesPresent tense usage of идти and ходитьPresent tense usage of ехать and ездитьPast tense usage of идти and ходитьPast tense usage of ехать and ездитьVerbs of motion in the future: пойти and прийти‘If’ and ‘when’ (naming conditions): когда, если, как только4755Narrating7 Keeping a diaryThe sequencing of eventsAdverbs of time: когда, пока/пока неPunctuation, co-ordinatingAspects of verbsExpressing necessity: долженAspects and verbs of motionPrefixed verbs of motionWord order: subject and predicate668MemoirsLexis: принимать/принятьPrepositions denoting the sequencing of events in timeStructuring of discourse using adverbs of timeWord order: там, тогдаSequence of tenses: reported speech, thought or perceptionAspects: use of the present tense in a narrativeFigurative meanings of verbs of motionPunctuation: parenthetic words and expressionsNaming places and objectsAdverbs of degree: немного, etc.779AnecdoteAdverbs of timeAspects: use of the present tense in narrativePrefixed verbs of motion: выйти and уйтиEllipsisWord order: subject and predicate90

ContentsixPunctuation: nouns in appositionAdverbs of purpose: пойду запишусь, чтобыThe comparative degree of adjectivesAdverbs: гораздо10 Biographical sketchLexis: владетьAdverbs of time: datesAdverbs of cause: по, за, изAspects in biographiesLexis: verbs commonly used to express deathAspects: the prefixes по- and проPast passive participle (short form)Adverbs used as predicatesWord order: adverbs of timeAlphabetisms10111 News itemsAdverbs of time: telling the timeApproximation and exactitudeAdverbs: ещё, ещё не, ужеAspects: past imperfectiveWord order: adverbs of time and adverbs of placePunctuation in co-ordination and subordination: commas andembedded clausesAdverbs of cause: из-за, отLexis: figurative uses of the verb приносить11412 Narratives in the futureEstablishing and maintaining a relationship with one’s audienceFractions: половинаAdverbs of purposeWord building: -ание, -ениеAdverbs of timeAspects124Describing13 AdjectivesAdjectives: long and short formWord building: verbs from adjectivesAdjectives: hard and softAdjectives: compoundSuperlative degree of adjectives133

xContentsShort form neuter adjective/adverb as predicateLexis: быватьImpersonal constructions14 PronounsStructuring discourse: linking parts of speechThe reflexive pronoun себяThe reflexive possessive adjective свойThe reflexive pronoun самThe reciprocal pronoun друг друга‘Any’ (любой)‘The same’ (одно и то же)14615 Compound nouns and imperfective gerundLexis and word building: compound nounsImperfective gerundLexis and idioms: wearing and wears15816 Aspects and perfective gerundAspects in foregrounding and backgroundingIrregular nounsComparative degree of adverbsPerfective gerundAspects in the past tense16617 Negation and numeralsNegative pronounsNegative adverbs: некогда/никогдаWord building раз-/расDeclension of numerals17818 ParticiplesPresent active participlePast active participlePresent participles as nounsPresent participles as adjectives192Key to exercisesIndex200215

INTRODUCTIONThis grammar and workbook is intended for learners of Russian at anintermediate stage or for those who want to refresh their knowledge of thegrammar. It is suited for people studying on their own and for those participating in language courses. Intermediate Russian is not intended to replace acourse book or indeed a reference grammar, but to be an additional resourcefor teachers and learners. The focus of this book is to provide scope forpractising and consolidating Russian structures.Intermediate Russian is divided into three parts, each of which is made upof six units containing concise explanations of grammatical points which areillustrated and then tested in exercises. Alongside sentence-length exercises,which focus on particular grammatical points, all units contain at least oneextended passage, enabling the student to engage with continuous text takenfrom a variety of genres.The main focus in Part 1 is on the norms of social interaction. The sampletexts have been selected to illustrate the norms of interaction between variousgroups of people in both written and spoken discourse. The units in this partare structured according to functional principles, that is to say according tothe uses to which language can be put. Each of the six units in this part looksat aspects of the following: establishing and maintaining a relationship with your speakerpoliteness formulae and appropriacyseeking and giving information/adviceoffering to do thingsexpressing wishes and desires.In Part 2 we look at various genres of narratives: diary entries, memoirs,anecdotes, biographies, news reports. The main focus in this part is on thestructuring of narratives, i.e. the telling of stories. The texts have beenselected to illustrate differing degrees of formality and differing relationshipsbetween the author, the events narrated and the readership. Each of the sixunits in this part looks at aspects of the following:

xiiIntroduction the sequencing of events: aspects, adverbs, adverbial phrases, adverbialclauses, co-ordinationverbs of motion: prefixed and unprefixed; adverbials of place after verbsof motionword order: the positioning of adverbial phrases and clausespunctuation between clausesexpressing cause and purposeestablishing and maintaining a relationship with one’s audience. In Part 3 we look at various ways of describing objects, people and events.Whereas in the previous part the focus was on narrative – which presupposeschange and a certain dynamism – in this part the focus is both on the linguistic means available in Russian for conveying the static and on the featureswhich characterise (as in a still) the participants and their environment. Theunits in this part are structured according to syntactic categories, and eachunit looks at the various parts of speech used to describe objects, people orevents. Each of the six units looks at aspects of the following: the use of noun phrases: compound nouns, numerals and nouns, prepositional phrasesthe use of adjectives: degree, predicative and attributive adjectivesthe use of verbal forms: participles, gerunds, aspects, impersonal constructions, negation.In reading the extended texts and doing the exercises that follow, studentswill not only consolidate their knowledge of grammatical structures, but alsodevelop their vocabulary in a wide variety of areas related to Russian life.The material used in both explanations and exercises is taken largelyfrom contemporary Russian publications and literature. The answers to allexercises are provided in the key.While the areas of language covered in each section overlap to some extent,it will be seen that each deals with the grammatical, functional and discoursecharacteristics of the particular text types in question. Cross-references aresupplied where appropriate, both within Intermediate Russian and to BasicRussian.Learners at both intermediate and advanced level will find IntermediateRussian beneficial for reference and revision.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSGratitude is due to Irina Mogilina for her careful proof-reading and helpfulcomments. Thanks are due to Caroline Brooks, Alison Cowie, Aoife Doherty,Annest John, Charlotte Lary, Sarah Marcus, Maeve Moore, David Murphy,Linda Murray, Brid Higgins Ní Chinneide, Deirdre Nic Ruairi and KieranO’Reilly, all former or current students of Russian, who between them readand commented on the manuscript. Thanks also to current students whopiloted the exercises and provided useful feedback.For generous permission to use material from their publications,we are extremely grateful to ‘Druzhba narodov’, ‘Moskovskie novosti’,‘Nezavisimaya gazeta’, ‘Ogonek’ and ‘Ptyuch’.We are most grateful to the editorial and production teams at Routledgefor their encouragement and support. We accept full responsibility for theerrors and infelicities that no doubt remain.John Murray and Sarah SmythTrinity College, Dublin

SOURCESPERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS«Дружба народов»«Московские новости»«Независимая riesDenisov P.N. and Morkovkin V.V. (eds), Учебный словарь сочетаемостислов русского языка, «Русский язык», Moscow, 1978Lopatin V.V. and Lopatina L.E., Русский толковый словарь, «Русскийязык», Moscow, 1998Mel ts M.Ya., Mitrofanova V.V. and Shapovalova G.G., Пословицыпоговорки загадки, «Академия наук СССР», Moscow/Leningrad, 1961Rozanova V.V. (ed.), Краткий толковый словарь русского языка, «Русскийязык», Moscow, 1988Shanskiy N.M. (ed.), 4000 наиболее употребительных слов русскогоязыка, «Русский язык», Moscow, 1978Wheeler Marcus, The Oxford Russian–English Dictionary, Clarendon Press,Oxford, 1972, 2nd edn 1984Zolotova G.A., Синтактический словарь, «Наука», Moscow, 1988GrammarsBorras F.M. and Christian R.F., Russian Syntax, 2nd edition, ClarendonPress, Oxford, 1979Pulkina I. and Zakhava-Nekrasova E., Russian, translated from the Russianby V. Koroty, 2nd edn, «Русский язык», Moscow, (no date)Unbegaun B.O., Russian Grammar, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957Wade Terence, A Comprehensive Russian Grammar, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992

xviSourcesCourse booksAkushina A.A. and Formanskaya N.I., Русский речевой этикет, 3rd edn,«Русский язык», Moscow, 1982Akushina A.A. and Formanskaya N.I., Этикет русского письма, 3rd edn,«Русский язык», Moscow, 1986

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSLIST OF ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ABBREVIATIONSacc.dat.f.gen.impf.inst.m.accusative casedative casefemininegenitive caseimperfective aspectinstrumental e casepersonperfective aspectpluralprepositional casesingularLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS OF PERIODICALPUBLICATIONS AND AUTHORS’ NAMESPeriodical publicationsДНМННГ«Дружба народов»«Московские новости»«Независимая uthors’ namesКв.Окуд.Поз.Сад.Валериан КвачадзеБулат ОкуджаваВладимир ПознерЕкатерина СадурСем.Пëтр йСл.Алексей СлаповскийТриф. Юрий ТрифоновХург. Александр Хургин

UNIT ONENaming, greeting and congratulatingNAMINGThere are a number of ways to address a person in Russian, each of whichdepends on the relationship between the people concerned:First nameIncludes the following forms: Diminutive form (Витя, Володя, Катя, Серёжа, Оля, . . .) is used toaddress children and friends (from one’s peer group). One would also usethe pronoun ты with these groups of people. Long form (Виталий, Владимир, Eкатерина, Сергей, Ольга, . . .) israrely used and is one way in which foreigners can be identified. Long form and patronymic (Виталий Максимович, ВладимирПетрович, Eкатерина Михайловна, . . .) is used by younger people toaddress older or senior people whom they do not know very well or withwhom they are on formal terms. It is normal for the older person todecide when it is appropriate to change how the younger personaddresses them. It is not unusual for the older person to address theyounger person by the first name only. The first name and patronymic isalso used between adults who do not know one another well or who wishto remain on formal terms. When addressing someone by his or her firstname and patronymic, the pronoun Вы is used.Surname only(Сидоров, Мартынов, Образцова, . . .) Restricted to special areas such aseducation, where a teacher or lecturer might address a student in this manner.In post-primary and higher education it is usual in such cases for the pronounВы to be used. Officers may also address subordinates (privates) by their

2Unit 1patronymic only using the familiar ты pronoun. Occasionally close friends orcolleagues address one another using either only the surname or only thepatronymic form.Addressing groupsThe following forms of address are common: to a group of peers:ребята to colleagues:дорогие коллеги! ‘Dear colleagues!’to a group in a friendly manner:дорогие друзья! frequently used among the young‘Dear friends!’to a group in a formal manner:Дамы и господа!‘Ladies and gentlemen’Exercise 1Insert the most appropriate addressees from the following list.Валентина Eвгеньевна, гости, друзья, Иванов, коллеги, мальчик, Нина,Сергей Петрович12345678—, ты уже завтракала?—, идите к доске и напишите решение задачи.—, вы сейчас свободны?—, ты новенький? Как тебя зовут?Вот, дорогие —, наш новый преподаватель французского языка.Уважаемые —, добро пожаловать!Дорогие —, давайте поднимем тост за гостей!—! Вам письмо от жены.Addressing strangersWhen addressing strangers, the following forms are common: a young man (in a cafe, restaurant, on the street): молодой человекa young woman (in a cafe, restaurant, on the street): девушкаa young boy: мальчикa young girl: девочка

Unit 1 3a man or woman whose status or function is known: господин/госпожа their function:Господин премьер-министрГоспожа посол‘Prime Minister’‘(Madam) Ambassador’Exercise 2Identify where each of the exchanges might takenumbers in each column.1 Молодой человек, где тут касса?2 Девушка, разрешите пройти.3 Молодой человек, где тут рынок?4 Господин посол, разрешите представиться.Иванов Сергей Иванович.5 Мальчик, ты новенький? Как тебя зовут?6 Разрешите мне не согласиться с Вами,госпожа Министр.place by matching theiiiiiiivна улицена приëмев транспортев классеv на собранииvi в магазинеPolite formulaeExamples such as:Скажите, пожалуйста, . . .Извините, . . .‘Could you tell me, please, . . .’; or‘Excuse me, . . .’are often used without any attempt to name the person one is addressing,such as when asking directions on the street.Exercise 3Identify where each of the requests might take place by matching thenumbers in each column.123456Скажите, пожалуйста, гдеближайшее метро?Покажите, пожалуйста,паспорт.Дайте мне двести граммколбасы.Скажите, пожалуйста, гдестоловая?Покажите, пожалуйста, вашпропуск!Дайте, пожалуйста, счëт.iв ресторанеii в институтеiii на улицеiv в проходной общежитияvв аэропортуvi в продуктовом магазине

4Unit 1Reference to a third partyTwo people speaking about a person with whom they were both on familiarterms would normally use the diminutive form of that person’s name:Наташа сказала, что будет (‘Natasha said she would be here’).Likely forms used to refer to someone with whom both speakers had aformal relationship would be: deferential use of the name and patronymic:Михаил Петрович заболел. jocularly disrespectful use of the surname/patronymic only:Головкин/Петрович заболел. ‘Mikhail Petrovich is ill.’‘Golovkin/Petrovich is ill.’jocular use of the diminutive form of the first name:Миша заболел.‘Misha’s sick.’In the newspaper interview with Naina Yeltsina (see Unit 4), the absent BorisYeltsin is referred to as Борис Николаевич, both by the interviewer, who isnot personally acquainted with him, and by the then president’s wife:Жчрналчст: А кто книжник —Вы или Борис Николаевич?Наина Ельзина: Книжник —Борис Николаевич.‘And who’s the book worm,you or Boris Nikolaevich?’‘Boris Nikolaevich is thebook worm.’When referring to a third person in a title, such as a newspaper headline, itis nоrmal to use the name and surname only, such as in the headline tothe Naina Yeltsina interview: Обозреватель «Эха Москвы» АндрейЧеркизов беседовал с Наиной Ельциной (‘ “Echo of Moscow” commentatorAndrey Cherkizov interviews Naina Yeltsina’). Use of the surname only isalso common: Уроки Примакова (‘Primakov’s Lessons’).Exercise 4Match the beginning and end of the following newspaper headlines.1 Последний президент России?2 МиГ —3 Как готовили встречуi Сталина с Гитлеромii променяла свой талант?iii Отвечает врач АлександраАндреева4 На что Лариса Долинаiv до Герострата5 Eсть ли какие-то эффективные v Не исключено, что им станетуспокоительные препараты?сам Eльцин6 От Гомераvi убийца Гагарина

Unit 15Declension of namesFirst names and patronymics are declined like normal nouns:Nom.Dat.MasculineFeminineМихаил ПетровичМихаилу ПетровичуНина АндреевнаНине АндреевнеMasculine last names ending in -ов, -ев or -ин are declined like masculinenouns, except for the instrumental singular, which has the adjectival ending-ым: nom. Путин, inst. Путиным.Feminine last names ending in -ова, -ева or -ина are declined as follows:nom. Каренина, acc. Каренину, gen., dat., inst., prep. Карениной.Last names ending in -ий or -ой are declined like adjectives:книга о Толстомстатья о Татьяне Толстойроманы Достоевского‘a book about Tolstoy’‘an article about Tat yana Tolstaya’‘the novels of Dostoevsky’Exercise 5In the Soviet period, many streets were renamed after rev

Intermediate Russian: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an acces-sible and practical grammar with related exercises in a single volume. Using a wide variety of texts from Russian sources, Intermediate Russian enables students to gain an insight into contemporary Russian society and culture whilst strengthening their fluency in the language. Its ...