INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION2016, VOL. 11, NO. 14, 6357-6372OPEN ACCESSMethods of Work with Pupils-Immigrants at RussianLanguage Lessons in Primary SchoolVenera G.Zakirovaa and Lera A. KamalovabaKazan(Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, RUSSIAABSTRACTThe relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need tojustify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior inthe educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessaryand sufficient individual resources, that are protective factors for teenagers from different types ofaddictions. The leading method of research is the analysis of psychological and educational literatureand legal acts in the field of prevention of addictive behavior, psycho diagnostic methods. The papertheoretically justifies the formation of the person’s resilience as a task of pedagogical prevention ofaddictive behavior in the educational environment, shows the results of psycho-diagnostics for copingstrategies, personal resources and resilience of adolescents, reveals the relationship between themodels of coping behavior, the development level of the individual resources and the level ofteenagers’ resilience. The article presents theoretical and practical significance for teachers, socialworkers and psychologists involved in the development and implementation of educational programsof addictive behavior prevention in the educational environment.KEYWORDSRussian language, children of migrants, methods,migrants, primary school, multi-ethnic, form,communicative, lingual, linguistic, skill, groupARTICLE HISTORYReceived 20 April 2016Revised 28 April 2016Accepted 9 Мау 2016IntroductionUrgency of the problemDevelopment of processes of migration, internal displacement, migrantchildren, refugees, exacerbated the problems of adaptation to other-culturalenvironment. The actuality of research of problems of teaching methods andpedagogical support of children-migrants is confirmed by modern geopoliticalCORRESPONDENCE Venera G. [email protected] 2016 Zakirova and Kamalova. Open Access terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International /) apply. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, on the condition that users give exact credit to the original author(s) and the source,provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if they made any changes.
6358V. G. ZAKIROVA AND L. A.KAMALOVArealities of the socio-educational situation of forced migration. In this regard,there is a need in teaching Russian language to migrant children, the creation ofnew methodology of teaching Russian language to migrants.The problem of psychological and pedagogical support of children-migrants isstudied by scientists J.E Galoyan (2004), R. Cialdini (2002). The necessity of socialand cultural adaptation of migrant children is written by T.A. Silantyeva (2007),A. Y. Makarov (2010).The problem of teaching children a foreign language the Russian language inelementary school is explored by T.B. Mikheeva (2008), R.B. Sabatkoyev (2009),S.N Zeitlin (2010), A.I. Sherstobitova (2015), T.M. Balykhina (2007), O.E.Sergeeva (2005),V.A. Slastenin et al., (1997), I.V. Uskova (2014), E.I.Negnevitskaya (1987), L.D Mityushkina, (2006), T.Y. Usha (2014), E.A.Khamraeva (2010), T.V. Savchenko, O.V. Sineva and T.A. Shorina (2009) wroteabout various forms of learning of students in secondary school.At his junior school age the child - migrant is influenced by the school,communication with peers, contacts with teachers. His image of the world isformed at this age. The emotional sphere of migrant children develops on the basisof feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. So, gradually, the surrounding of thechild, society and culture become the only possible and the existing world for him,he fully identifies it with himself (Cialdini, 2002).I.A. Sherstobitova considers the methodological aspects of work with pupilswith a foreign language in a Russian school (Sherstobitova, 2015). Methodologicalrecommendations are aimed at teaching speaking, listening, and emotionalintelligence development of children. The work gives samples of learningpronunciation, vocabulary, and ways of organizing of grammatical material in theRussian language lessons. The author addresses the important issue of theshortage of teachers capable of working in a multi-ethnic school with migrantchildren, the lack of elaboration of methodology of teaching Russian as a foreignlanguage, as well as the lack of real opportunity to use it by teaching multi-ethniccontingent of students.R. B. Sabatkoyev develops a methodology of teaching the Russian languagewith native (non-Russian) language learning. He writes about the strengtheningof the communicative orientation of the educational content in the Russianlanguage, functional nature of the representation, the improvement of methods ofinterpretation of linguistic units and the optimization on this basis of cognitiveactivity of pupils at school. At school with native (non-Russian) language learning,it should be noted a certain reorientation of the goals and objectives of languageteaching in terms of the ratio of speech and language that allows us to Refineideas about the role of grammatical theory in the solution of educational problemsof language learning. This means that the activities of teachers are shifted fromlanguage to speech significantly. More training time is devoted to work onformation of skills of practical language proficiency in different forms of speechactivity. Such an approach requires a new logic of construction of the lesson. Bysuch a reorientation is a significant improvement of the effectiveness of theeducational process while reducing its complexity is provided. The basis for thiswork becomes the text (Sabatkoyev, 2014).In various studies the idea of necessityof use of different work forms with migrant pupils at Russian language lessons isconfirmed. Among the various forms scientists identify the following: frontal,collective, group, pair, individual.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION6359Front form of organization of educational activity is an activity of teachersand students in the classroom when all students perform the same work at thesame time then the whole class discuss, compare and summarize the results.The advantage of collective forms of work is that it greatly increases theamount of speech activity at the lessons: choral responses help to overcome thefear to make mistakes, and most importantly in working with students with aforeign language. This form is convenient for the proposed cast of real-lifesituations that encourage students to ask or say anything in Russian. They helpto create in children a supply of the most commonly used Russian words andphrases for use in spoken language. The group form of organization of educationalwork of students. The main features of group work of students in the classroomare:-class is divided into groups to solve specific learning tasks;-each group gets a certain job and performs it together under the directsupervision of the group leader or teacher;-tasks in the group are executed in away that allows considering and assessing the individual contribution of eachgroup member (Slastenin et al, 1997).Working in pairs helps to fix language errors of the students by constructing adialogue on a given situation. Students-the migrants assist each other in correctand clear pronunciation of nonnative speech. Work on the chain can be used bypracticing the art of reading, by reinforcing knowledge of grammar forms andstructures with and without visual support, by the preparation of stories for thestory the pictures, by retelling.E.I. Negnevitskaya (1987) considers the importance of using games bylearning. She explains that the game is able to make almost any linguistic unit(sound, syllable, word) as available for the student, by playing, children can learnto articulate sounds, to perceive the audible differences, to understand words tomake a phrase on the model etc. on the other hand, for a child the game isinteresting, exciting interaction with the teacher and peers, which createstatements is dictated by the internal needs of the players. However, E.I.Negnevitskaya (1987) notes that the game becomes an effective learning tool onlyif you meet the following requirements:1) We need to know exactly what skill is being trained in this game; what thestudent was unable to do before the game and what he learned as a ity.3) The speech of the teacher should be a model for the children, and not amechanical imitation, itshould encourage children to be original.4) The Speech activity of pupils must not directly be evaluated by the teacher, sothe rules of the game you should consider so that errors would not win in thegame.The awareness of internal activity in the use of the new language isconsidered a prerequisite for achieving effective learning outcomes of students.Didactic games used at lessons of Russian language can be visual and verbal.Using illustrative games extends vocabulary of students. Word games are builtwithout relying on object visibility. Their goal is to strengthen the knownvocabulary and the development of mental activity, formation of skills of speakingin accordance with the set of the game task. Reproduction of words in verbaldidactic games can be carried out with other mental problems solving: replacingone word by synonymous with it, calling the object or character by its
6360V. G. ZAKIROVA AND L. A.KAMALOVAcharacteristics or actions, grouping items by their similarity or their difference.Individual form of organization of work of students in the classroom implies thateach student gets to do the job, specially chosen for him in accordance with histraining and educational opportunities.Methods of work with pupils-immigrants at Russian language lessons inprimary schoolCourse of Russian language at school with native (non-Russian) languagelearning is based on the principles and requirements common to Russian andnational schools.Basic principles of teaching children-migrants at the elementary school are:1) Learning Russian language is focused on the development of children'sability to communicate.The basis for such communication, are communicative skills: only by teachingthe child to speak, listen, read and write in Russian (within certain limits), it ispossible to achieve high-quality achievement of main learning goals. We need toinstill in students not only practical skills, but also to shape certain personalitytraits: sociability, familiarity, the desire to make contact, ability to interact in ateam. For this it is important the child to be the protagonist in the classroom, tofeel free and comfortable by taking an active part in the discussion of the lesson,by building its plot.Excessive using of frontal forms of work creates only the illusion of lopment.It is important that children to "created" the lesson with the teacher. Not onlyknowledge and mastery of the students linguistic and speech material determinesthe efficiency of the process of learning a foreign language in primary school age,much willingness and desire of children to participate in interculturalcommunication, which is possible if the main form of educational activity pupilswould be not only listening, speaking or reading, but a living activecommunication. The comfort of communication depends on how the teacherresponds to the errors of children. Young students need faith in their abilities andjoy for their success; they need help of teacher and his positive evaluation.It is important the migrant pupils had no fear of making a mistake in thestudy of Russian language, by being engaged in communication and sought by allmeans to realize their communicative intention. The comfort of children’sinteraction during communication depends on the use of various organizationalforms of education. With the widely used forms of frontal and individual work itis necessary to be more actively introduced to the educational process and otherforms of training: group, collective, project.2) Language is learned by migrant children as a mean of communication.Children learn language in the concerned process of communication andinteraction with each other, the teacher, the toys, fairy tale characters andcartoons.Any communication begins with the motive and purpose, i.e., that for whichsomething is said, is perceived by the ear, is read, and written. The student mustclearly understand the purpose of his speech and its final result.The root of teaching children to oral language in elementary school is a gamewhich "is a psychological justification for the transition to the new language of
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION6361learning" (Negnevitskaya, 1987). Using games as a method of speech teaching inthe elementary school allows the teacher to formulate such speech tasks that havethe motive and the goal of speech actions, which dictate the use of necessarycommunication samples (Negnevitskaya, 1987). Using of various games includingsolving riddles, crossword puzzles, the staging of songs, poems, fairy tales,provides a permanent the children's interest to foreign language speech activity,to the subject of "Russian language" (as a foreign language) and allows you tosubdue the process of mastering the foreign language material to the decision ofextra linguistic task communication. It is important not only as the student saysin Russian, but what he says, whether he has expressed or the perceivedinformation privacy importance. By reading it is important to pay more attentionto the student on the content-the semantic side of the text. The text for the learneris the source of extra-linguistic information, and not an example of the possibleuse of lexico-grammatical forms and means that you must learn. For example:"Read (goal), and say what friends gave to Katy on her birthday (motive)".3) Students can see the practical application of the target language.Traditionally, in the foreign language class the children practice writing,reading, listening, speaking, but in real life these activities can be found veryseldom usually they are combined with each other to solve a certain task. For thestudent the content of the activity (the main purpose) stays behind the scenes,and the study of the Russian language is formal (need to know); the studentdoesn’t see a real opportunity to use his knowledge. To eliminate thisdisadvantage we can use the techniques of project methodology.4) Children learn Russian as a foreign language not only as a communicationtool, but also as a means of initiation to another culture.It is important to introduce kids to the world of culture of the Russianlanguage in its relation to native culture. The younger students learning a foreignlanguage is constructed as a dialogue of cultures. This requires the following: a)coherent linguistic-cultural orientation to learning subject matter, namely: toteach the students the vocabulary and phraseology with regard to nationalcultural specificity of these grammatical units; b) introducing with selected crosscultural material (holidays, traditions, games).5) Children-migrants acquire the language consciously, and not on the basisof imitation.We need to foster students ' positive attitude to received knowledge, toorganize activities in general. Language learning will be realized, when thechildren will see the meaning of what they are doing. Awareness of the importanceof the acquired knowledge and skills must be exercised in the future, and for agiven period (lesson, lesson level, exercise), so it is important to create theconditions in which the material under study will gain meaning for students. Onlyin this case, imposed exercises and tasks are taken by the student, and all hispsychophysical processes (thinking, perception, attention, memory) are activated,and training has a developmental effect on the identity.6) Given the specifics of the native language is a foreign language.When teaching, for example, pronunciation it is important to show commonand different in the studied and native languages. The teacher can "save time" onlearning the sounds of the Russian language, which correspond to sounds of nativelanguage. While learning graphics and spelling do not waste time in learning to
6362V. G. ZAKIROVA AND L. A.KAMALOVAwrite letters similar to the letters of the native language. In the case of trainingdialogue and monologue it is important to build on the already established skillsin the native language: to describe, to tell, to argue, to prove. The native languageof students may and have to attend in Russian lessons, but as far as masteringthe Russian language, the proportion of the native language should be reduced.7) Differentiated and integrated approaches in teaching the younger students theRussian language in national schools.At the initial stage a differentiated approach is required in the formation ofboth oral and mediated (through a book, textbook) forms of communication.When teaching verbal forms of communication it is important to remember thatthe level of formation of the ability to understand speech depends on the successof language acquisition in general. From the very first lessons teachers shouldteach children to perceive dolls or fairy-tale characters as native Russianspeakers, as communication participants are not able to speak the nativelanguage learners and understand only Russian language. From the first steps oflearning it is recommended to use audio materials. The student also should beexplained the difference of a dialog from monologue. When teaching coherentstatement, it should promote consistency, deploy, conversion and emotionalspeech. In dialogical communication the children learn to use a minimum oflinguistic means in accordance with the literary and colloquial norms of the targetlanguage. When teaching indirect form of communication (through book reading)practices in the teaching of reading aloud and “to myself". Teaching Russianlanguage in national school in the first grade is carried out on an oral basis, andin the following classes to the oral communication skills of students is added thepossession of reading and writing. By the fourth year of study the ratio of theseactivities becomes approximately equal.8) An Individual approach in conditions of collective forms of learning.To study the personality of each student and the team as a whole needs throughthe observation in the classroom and outside it, through an exchange of views withstaff, colleagues, and conversations with parents. By organization ofcommunication it is necessary to use possible situations and tasks that affect theinterests of the pupil, and offer tasks that encourage student to use reclaimedmaterial to express their thoughts in accordance with the communicationsituation. When organizing team or group forms of work it is important tomaintain interest in students with low verbal status and low status "popularity"in the class. It is necessary to pay attention of the collective to individual studentprogress, and so that they could feel the movement forward; you should try toprovide collective experiences in shared and personal successes and failures of thechildren. You should also create a situation of collective speech activity, thespeaker generating the motive of the utterance, and the rest – motive activeperception of this statement.9) The Use of visual materials in teaching the younger students a foreignlanguage. Visibility at the initial stage performs a catalytic function, and in twoplans. In the first case we are talking about internal (linguistic) clarity
Course of Russian language at school with native (non-Russian) language learning is based on the principles and requirements common to Russian and national schools. Basic principles of teaching children-migrants at the elementary school are: 1) Learning Russian language is focused on the development of children's ability to communicate.