ACTION PLAN FOR THE RUSSIAN RIVER WATERSHED PATHOGEN TOTAL . PDF

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ACTION PLAN FOR THE RUSSIAN RIVER WATERSHEDPATHOGEN TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)The following text is to be inserted into the Water Quality Control Plan for the North Coast Region (BasinPlan) following the Navarro, Eel, and Mattole Temperature TMDL Action Plans:The Russian River Watershed encompasses 1,484 square miles in Sonoma and Mendocino counties,California. Major incorporated cities within the watershed include Ukiah, Cloverdale, Healdsburg, Windsor,Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol. The watershed also includes numerous unincorporatedcommunities such as Calpella, Hopland, Forestville, Guerneville, and Monte Rio. The 110-mile mainstemchannel of the Russian River originates in the Redwood Valley of central Mendocino County about 15 milesnorth of Ukiah and enters the Pacific Ocean in Sonoma County at Jenner. The Russian River serves as theprimary water source for more than 500,000 residents in Mendocino, Sonoma and Marin counties and foragricultural production in Mendocino and Sonoma counties. It provides multiple water-based recreationalopportunities important to the economies of the watershed and well-being of residents and visitors.The Action Plan for the Russian River Watershed Pathogen Total Maximum Daily Load, hereinafter knownas the Russian River Pathogen TMDL Action Plan, or Action Plan, is based on the authorities andrequirements of both the federal Clean Water Act and the state Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act(Porter Cologne) and applies to the entire Russian River Watershed. This Action Plan: 1) summarizes theelements of a TMDL; 2) summarizes findings relative to pollution assessment; and 3) describes theProgram of Implementation designed to control fecal waste pollution, achieve bacteria water qualityobjectives (bacteria objectives), and restore the water contact recreation (REC-1) beneficial use to protectpublic health. The overall goal of the Action Plan is to minimize human exposure to waterborne diseasecausing pathogens and to protect uses of water for recreational activities such as wading, swimming,fishing, and boating. To accomplish this goal, the Action Plan includes a Fecal Waste Discharge Prohibitionthat applies to all surface waters of the Russian River Watershed. Compliance with the prohibition will beachieved by either preventing the discharge of fecal waste; complying with a relevant NPDES permit,WDRs, or waiver of WDRs; or through the Regional Water Board’s implementation of MOUs anddevelopment and implementation of a non-dairy livestock program. The geographic area within whichspecial provisions apply to Onsite Waste Treatment Systems (OWTS) are limited to those areas identifiedas impaired 1 and polluted 2 based on assessment of ambient water quality data, where a sufficient numberof data existed.I.PROBLEM STATEMENTSeveral surface waters in the Russian River Watershed are identified on the 2012 Clean Water Act Section303(d) List of Impaired Waters due to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations that do not support theREC-1 beneficial use nor attain the bacteria objectives. Water quality monitoring studies have beenconducted using multiple FIB, which provide evidence of seasonal and episodic fecal waste pollution atlocations throughout the watershed. These data have been assessed based on subwatershed boundariesdefined by the U.S. Geological Survey as hydrologic unit code 12, also known as HUC-12 subwatersheds.The Russian River Watershed is divided into 43 HUC-12 subwatersheds as outlined in Table 1.Table 1. Russian River HUC-12 SubwatershedsHydrologic AreaHydrologic SubAreaUpper Russian RiverCoyote Valley12Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC-12)SubwatershedsBurright Creek-East Fork Russian RiverCold CreekConsistent with the Clean Water Act, the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act, and the Water Quality ControlPolicy for Addressing Impaired Waters (Resolution 2005-0050), the term “impaired” refers to waters that do notmeet ambient water quality standards.California Water Code section 13050 subdivision (l) defines “pollution” to mean: an alteration of waters of the stateby waste to a degree, which unreasonably affects either of the following: (A) the waters for beneficial uses; or (B)facilities which serve these beneficial uses.May 2019Pathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review1

Hydrologic AreaHydrologic SubAreaForsythe CreekUkiahSulphur CreekUkiahMiddle Russian RiverGeyservilleWarm SpringsLagunaSanta RosaMark WestLower Russian RiverGuernevilleHydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC-12)SubwatershedsLake Mendocino-East Fork Russian RiverForsythe CreekSalt Hollow Creek-Russian RiverEast Fork Russian River-Russian RiverLittle Sulphur CreekAlder Creek-Big Sulphur CreekAckerman CreekMill CreekOrrs Creek-Russian RiverRobinson CreekMorrison Creek-Russian RiverDooley CreekMcNab Creek-Russian RiverFeliz CreekPieta CreekCummiskey Creek-Russian RiverOat Valley Creek-Russian RiverGill Creek-Russian RiverSausal Creek-Russian RiverFranz CreekMaacama CreekBrooks Creek-Russian RiverGalloway CreekSoda Spring Creek-Dry CreekWarm Springs CreekLake Sonoma-Dry CreekPena CreekMill CreekWest Slough-Dry CreekUpper Laguna de Santa RosaLower Laguna De Santa RosaUpper Santa Rosa CreekLower Santa Rosa CreekWindsor CreekPorter Creek-Mark West CreekEast Austin CreekWard Creek-Austin CreekGreen Valley CreekPorter Creek-Russian RiverDutch Bill Creek-Russian RiverWillow Creek-Russian RiverREC-1 is a year-round beneficial use of the Russian River Watershed. Statewide bacteria objectives for theprotection of REC-1 are established using E. coli fecal indicator bacteria for freshwater and enterococcifecal indicator bacteria for saline water. The E. coli and enterococci bacteria objectives are set at allowablerates of illness deemed acceptable for the protection of public health (e.g., 32 gastrointestinal illness per1,000 recreators). U.S. EPA has established national criteria for the protection of REC-1 based onenterococci fecal indicator bacteria in freshwater. Human and bovine Bacteroides bacteria measurementsdetect the presence of fecal waste and allow an assessment of the animal source of the waste detected.Microbial source identification (e.g., PhyloChip phylogenetic DNA microarray) also allows an assessmentof animal source by measuring the percentage of sample DNA that matches known DNA fecal wasteprofiles. Public health advisories, such as beach closures, represent direct adverse impact to the REC-1beneficial use.May 2019Pathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review2

For the purpose of this TMDL, a HUC-12 subwatershed was identified as polluted and impaired if: 1) dataexceeded the statewide bacteria objective for E. coli in freshwater or enterococci in saline water; or 2) dataexceeded the U.S. EPA criteria for enterococci in freshwater and there was a public health advisory anytimesince 2012. Water quality data were collected in approximately 50% of the HUC-12 subwatersheds, so thepollution and impairment status of unmeasured HUC-12 subwatersheds is unknown. The sourceassessment (see Section II, Sources of Fecal Waste) identifies all known sources of fecal waste dischargein the Russian River Watershed and describes special studies that identify associations between season,land cover category, and Onsite Wastewater Treatment System (OWTS) density with water qualityoutcomes, extending the area of concern to the whole watershed.HUC-12 subwatersheds with direct evidence of pollution and impairment are depicted in Figure 1 andinclude: Oat Valley Creek-Russian RiverSausal Creek-Russian RiverBrooks Creek-Russian RiverWest Slough- Dry CreekUpper Laguna de Santa RosaLower Laguna de Santa RosaUpper Santa Rosa CreekLower Santa Rosa CreekPorter Creek-Mark West CreekGreen Valley CreekPorter Creek-Russian RiverDutch Bill Creek-Russian RiverWillow Creek-Russian RiverBacteroides and DNA data, where collected, provide strong evidence of human fecal waste as sources ofconcern in Orrs Creek-Russian River, Lower Santa Rosa Creek, Green Valley Creek, and Porter CreekRussian River HUC-12 subwatersheds. Bacteroides and DNA data provide strong evidence ofbovine/grazer fecal waste as sources of concern in Upper Laguna de Santa Rosa and Porter CreekRussian River HUC-12 subwatersheds.May 2019Pathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review3

Figure 1: HUC-12 Subwatersheds with Direct Evidence of Impairment and PollutionForMay 2019Pathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review4

II.SOURCES OF FECAL WASTEWater quality monitoring studies in the Russian River Watershed (studies) find that FIB concentrations (e.g.,E. coli, enterococci, and Bacteroides) in surface waters are significantly higher during wet weather periods,than during dry periods, indicating that storm water runoff has a strong influence on the delivery of fecalwaste to the Russian River and its tributaries. Studies also find that regardless of the time of year, E. coliand enterococci concentrations in surface waters are significantly higher in developed areas (both seweredand non-sewered), than other areas (e.g., shrubland, forestland, and agricultural lands). Human-specificBacteroides bacteria concentrations in the wet period indicate a widespread human fecal waste signature inall land cover types, except forestland. Bovine-specific Bacteroides bacteria concentrations in the wetperiod indicate a widespread bovine fecal waste signature in shrubland, agricultural lands, and developedonsite septic (rural residential) areas. Focused assessments find that: 1) FIB concentrations correlate withparcel density in those areas with OWTS; and 2) higher concentrations of both Bacteroides and E. colibacteria are associated with periods of high use at beach recreational areas. These studies indicate thewidespread presence of fecal waste sources within the Russian River Watershed.The following specific source categories are determined to have potential to discharge fecal waste tosurface waters in the Russian River Watershed:Sources of Human Fecal Waste Material Treated Municipal Wastewater to Surface Waters, including discharges from holding ponds;Untreated Sewage from Sanitary Sewer Systems;Wastewater from Percolation Ponds and through Spray Irrigation;Runoff from Land Application of Municipal Biosolids and Biosolids Storage Areas;Runoff from Water Recycling Projects;Runoff from sites that receive discharges of waste to land;Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, both large and small, commercial and domestic;Recreational Water Uses and Users;Homeless and Illegal Camping; andStorm Water to Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4s) and Areas Outside MS4 Boundaries.Sources of Domestic Animal and Farm Animal Waste Pet Waste;Manure from Non-Dairy Livestock and Farm Animals; andManure from Dairy Cows.Section V, Program of Implementation is applicable to the entire Russian River Watershed and describesthe regulatory mechanisms for controlling each potential fecal waste source category.III.NUMERIC TARGETSNumeric targets are developed for metrics that help assess progress towards attainment of the water qualityobjective. This TMDL is based on the statewide E. coli bacteria objective for the protection of REC-1 infreshwater and enterococci in saline water, which are given as concentrations. The numeric targetsestablished for this TMDL are identical to the TMDL and statewide bacteria objectives 3. The numeric targetsfor E. coli for freshwater and enterococci for saline water are expressed as six-week rolling geometricmeans (GM) calculated weekly and statistical threshold values (STV) not to be exceeded more than 10percent of the time, calculated monthly. The numeric targets are based on colony forming units (cfu) ofbacteria per 100 mL water sample. For the purpose of this TMDL and consistent with the statewide bacteriaobjectives for REC-1 protection, saline waters are those waters in which salinity exceeds 1 part perthousand more than 5% of the time during the calendar year.3The State Water Resources Control Board established statewide bacteria objectives applicable to both inlandsurface waters and ocean waters in Part 3 of the Water Quality Control Plan for Inland Surface Waters, EnclosedBays and Estuaries of California- Bacteria Provisions and a Water Quality Variance Policy and Amendment to theWater Quality Control plan for Ocean Waters of California-Bacteria Provisions and a Water Quality StandardsVariance Policy and are available at: /May 2019Pathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review5

E. coli Bacteria Numeric Targets: 100 cfu/100 mL as a GM 320 cfu/100 mL as a STVEnterococci Bacteria Numeric Targets: 30 cfu/100 mL as a GM 110 cfu/100 mL as a STVIV.TMDL, ALLOCATIONS, MARGIN OF SAFETY, AND SEASONALVARIATIONThe TMDL, waste load allocations (WLAs) for point sources, and load allocations (LAs) for nonpointsources are expressed as receiving water concentrations of E. coli in freshwater and enterococci in salinewaters identical to the statewide bacteria objective for protection of REC-1. As with the numeric targets, theWLAs and LAs are expressed as six-week rolling geometric means (GM) calculated weekly and statisticalthreshold values (STV) not to be exceeded more than 10 percent of the time, calculated monthly. TheWLAs and LAs are based on colony forming units (cfu) of bacteria per 100 mL water sample. For thepurpose of this TMDL and consistent with the statewide bacteria objectives for REC-1 protection, salinewaters are those waters in which salinity exceeds 1 part per thousand more than 5% of the time during thecalendar year. Table 2 identifies the WLAs and LAs for each source category.E. coli Bacteria WLAs and LAs: 100 cfu/100 mL as a GM 320 cfu/100 mL as a STVEnterococci Bacteria WLAs and LAs: 30 cfu/100 mL as a GM 110 cfu/100 mL as a STVTable 2. Wasteload and Load AllocationsSource CategoryMunicipal wastewater discharge tosurface water (NPDES)Municipal wastewater discharge to land(WDR)Sanitary Sewer SystemsLand Application of BiosolidsRecycled Water Irrigation RunoffMunicipal Stormwater (NPDES)CalTrans Stormwater (NPDES)Large OWTSIndividual OWTSRecreational Water Use and UsersHomeless Encampments and IllegalCampingNon-dairy Livestock and Farm AnimalWasteDairies and CAFOs subject to NPDESpermitMay 2019Type cationGM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinity0000GM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinityGM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinity0000GM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinityGM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinityPathogen TMDL Action Plan For Public Review6

Source CategoryDairies and CAFOs not subject toNPDES permitType ofAllocationLAAllocationGM and STV for E. coli or enterococcidepending on salinityFor fecal waste discharges already controlled by a prohibition or effluent limitations related to disinfectionrequirements, the more stringent requir

Lower Russian River Guerneville East Austin Creek Ward Creek-Austin Creek Green Valley Creek Porter Creek-Russian River Dutch Bill Creek-Russian River Willow Creek-Russian River . REC-1 is a year-round beneficial use of the Russian River Watershed. Statewide bacteria objectives for the protection of REC-1 are established using . E. coli