SOURCE DOCUMENTS AND BOOKS OF ORIGINAL ENTRYThese are documents containing the information that makes basis of making entries in the booksof accounts. They act as evidence that the transaction actually took place. They includes Cash sale receipt: - a document that shows that cash as been received or paid out of thebusiness either in form of cash or cheque. It is a source document that is mainly used inmaking records in the cash journals cash book, cash accounts or bank accounts. If thereceipt is received, it means payments has been made and therefore will be credited in theabove accounts, or taken to cash disbursement/payment journals, while when issued, itmeans cash/cheque has been received and therefore will be debited in the above accountsor taken to cash receipt journals Invoice: - a document issued when the transaction was done on credit to demand for theirpayment. If the invoice is an incoming invoice/invoice received, then it implies that thepurchases were made on credit, and if it is an outgoing/invoice issued then it implies thatsales were made on credit.The incoming invoice will be used to record the information in the purchasesjournals/diary, while an outgoing invoice will be used to record information in salesjournals/diaries Credit note: - a document issued when goods are returned to the business by thecustomer or the business return goods to the supplier and to correct any overcharge thatmay have taken place. If it is received, then it means part of the purchases has beenreturned and therefore the information will be used to record information in the purchasesreturn journals, while if issued then it means the part of sales has been returned by thecustomers and therefore used to record the information in the sales return journals/diaries Debit note: - a document used to correct an undercharge that may have taken place toinform the debtor to pay more. It therefore acts as an additional invoice Payment voucher: - a document used where it is not possible to get a receipt for thecash/cheque that has been received or issued. The person being paid must sign on it tomake it authentic. It is therefore used to record information just as receiptsBooks of original entries/Journals/Diaries/day’s books/Subsidiary booksThese are books where the transactions are listed when they first occur, with their entries beingmade on a daily basis before they are posted to their respective ledger accounts. The informationin the source documents are used to make entries in these books. The books of original entriesinclude: Sales journals Sales return journals/Return inwards journals
Purchases journals/creditors journals/bought journalsPurchases return journals/return outwards journalCash receipt journalsCash payment/cash disbursement journalsThree column cash bookThe petty cash bookAnalysis cash bookGeneral journals/journal propera) Sales journalsThis is used to record credit sales of goods before they can be recorded in their various ledgers.The information obtained in the outgoing invoice/invoice issued is used to record the informationin this journal as the source documentThe overall total in the sales journal is therefore posted in the sales account in the general ledgeron credit side and debtors account in the sales ledger as a debit entrySales journalDateParticulars/detailsInvoice noLedger folioamountExample:The following information relates to Tirop traders for the month of June 2010June 1: Sold goods to wafula on credit of ksh 200, invoice no 01142: Sold to the following debtors on credit; Wanjiru ksh 400, Musyoka ksh 300,Wafula ksh 3005: sold goods on credit to Wanjiru of ksh 30010: Sold goods to the following on credit Kanini ksh 100, Wafula ksh 500,Wanjiru ksh 60012: Sold goods on credit to musyoka of ksh 350Required:Prepare the relevant day book for the above transactions; hence post the variousamounts to their respective individual accountsSales journalDateParticulars/detailsInvoice noLedger folioamountJune fulaSL3005WanjiruSL30010WanjiruSL600
10101215WafulaKaniniMusyokaTotals posted to the salesaccount (Cr)SLSLSL500100350GL3050(Post the rest to their individual debtors account)b) Sales Return Journals/Return inwards journalsThis is for recording the goods that the customers/debtors have returned to the business. It usesthe information in the credit note issued as a source document to prepare it. The information istherefore recorded to the return inwards account in the general ledger, while the individual’sentries are reflected (credited) also in their respective debtors account for double entry to becompleted. It takes the following formatSales return journalDateParticulars/detailsCredit note noLedger folioamountFor example;Record the following transaction for the 2007 in their relevant diaries, hence post them to theirrespective ledger accounts;May 1: goods that had been sold to M Okondo of shs 2600 on credit was returned to thebusiness“ 2: G. Otuya returned good worth shs 1320 that was sold to him on credit to thebusiness“ 8: the following returned goods that had been sent to them on credit to the businessH Wati shs 3500, Muya shs 4700 M Okondo shs 2900“ 12: G Otuya returned goods worth shs 5400 that were sold on credit to the business“ 30: Goods worth sh 8900 that had been sold on credit to G Otuya were returned tothe businessSales Return journalDateParticulars/detailsCredit noteLedger folioamountnoMay 2007:1M OkondoS.L26002G OtuyaS.L13208H WatiS.L35008MuyaS.L47008M OkondoS.L290012G OtuyaS.L5400
30G OtuyaTotals posted to ReturnInwards a/c (Dr)S.L8900GL29320(Post the entries to the individual ledger a/c’s (Cr))c) Purchases JournalThis is used to record the credit purchase of goods. The totals are then debited in the purchasesaccount in the general ledger, while the individual’s creditors accounts are credited. It used theinvoices received/incoming invoices as it source document. It takes the following format;Purchases journalDateParticulars/detailsInvoice noLedger folioamountFor exampleThe following information relates to Mikwa Traders for the month of April 2011. Record them intheir relevant day’s book, hence post the entries to their relevant ledger accounts.April 2011;“ 2. Bought goods worth shs 25 000 on credit from Juma, Invoice no 35023. Bought goods worth shs 16 500 from kamau on credit, invoice no 26076. Bought goods worth shs 12 700 from Juma on credit, invoice no 35098. Purchased goods of shs 25 200 from juma, invoice no 3605; shs 17 500 from Kamau,invoice no 3700; shs 45 000 from Wamae wholesalers, invoice no 375015. Purchased goods of shs 9 200 from Wamae wholesalers on credit, invoice no 376218. Bought goods of shs 17 000 from Kamau on credit, invoice no 380224. Purchased goods of shs 36 000 from Juma suppliers on credit, Invoice no 3812DateApril 2011:236888151824Purchases Day bookParticulars/detailsInvoice noJumaKamauJumaJumaKamauWamaeWamaeKamauJumaTotals posted to the350226073509360537003750376238023812Ledger folioamountPLPLPLPLPLPLPLPLPL25 00016 50012 70025 20017 50045 0009 20017 00036 000
Purchase account (Dr)GL204100(Post the individual entries to their relevant accounts in the ledger (crediting))d) Purchases Return Journals/Return outwards JournalsThis is used to record goods that have been returned to the creditors by the business, reducing thevalue of the goods that had been purchased. It uses the credit note received as the sourcedocuments, with the totals being in the purchases return account while the individual creditor’saccounts are debited in their respective ledger accounts. It takes the following formatPurchases return journalDateParticulars/detailsCredit note noLedger folioamountFor example;Record the following transaction in the purchases return day book for Njiru’s traders for themonth of June 2010, hence post the information into their relevant ledger accounts.June 2010;“ 3. Returned goods worth shs 400 that had been bought from Nairobi stores, credit noteno 56“ 8. Return goods of shs 1 200 to Matayos store, Credit no 148“19. Had some of their purchases returned to the following; Njoka enterprises shs 700,credit note no 205, Nairobi Stores shs 600, credit note no 58, Matayos store shs 1000 credit note no 191“26. Returned goods worth shs 1 800 to Njoka enterprise credit note no 210“30. Return goods worth shs 1 020 to Matayos store, credit note no 200e) Cash receipt DiariesThis is used to record all the cash and cheques that have been received in the business. They maybe many that posting directly in the cash book may be tedious and are therefore first recordedhere. It totals are posted to the cash and bank accounts in the general ledger (Dr), while theindividual accounts are credited in their respective accounts in the ledger. It uses the cash receiptissued and bank slips received as the source documents. It takes the following format;Cash receipt journalDateParticulars/detailsReceipt noLedger folio Disc allowedcashbankf) Cash payment Journals
This is used to record cash and cheques that have been issued to the creditors/out of the business.Its totals are credited (Cr) in the cash and bank account and the individual accounts are debited(Dr) in their respective accounts It uses the cash receipt received and bank slips issued as thesource documents. It takes the following format;Cash Payment journalDateParticulars/detailsReceipt noLedger folio Disc receivedcashbankFor example:Record the following transactions into their relevant day books of Onyango traders, hence postthe entries to their respective ledger accounts and balance them off;May 2011:“1. Cash sales amounting to ksh 3 000, receipt no 0112“2. Paid the following creditors by cheque after having deducted a cash discount of 10%in each case; H. Mwangi ksh 1 500, J. Mwaniki ksh 1 600, N. Mugo ksh 1 200“3. Receive the following Chaques from debtors in settlement of their debts after havingdeducted 5% cash discount in each case; Lucy kshs 22 800 cheque no 0115, Otienokshs 8 550 cheque no 0011, Martha ksh 1 330 cheque no 0016“5. Paid for repairs in cash kshs 16 000, receipt no 0251“10. Paid Juma in cash kshs 9 500, receipt no 0295“14. Cash sales kshs 17 000, receipt no 02714“15. Banked kshs 6 000 from the cash till“15. Received cash from Mary of kshs 13 500, receipt no 0258“16. Cash sales of kshs 26 400 was directly banked, bank slip no 40152“20. Cash purchases of kshs 8 920, receipt no 117“22. Cash purchases of kshs 15 200 was paid for by a cheque, cheque no 512DateMay MarthaSalesCashMarySalesCash receipt journalDocument LGL“c”SLGLDiscallowedcashbank3 000120045070022 8008 5501 33017 0006 00013 50026 400
Totals to be posted tothe cash and bank a/c(Dr)2 35033 50065 080cashbank(Post the totals and the entries to their respective accounts)DateMay 2011222510152022Particulars/detailsH. MwangiJ. MwanikiN. MugoRepairsJumaBankPurchasesPurchasesTotals to be posted tothe cash and bank a/c(Cr)Cash Payment journalDocument scReceived166.70177.70133.301 5001 6001 20016 0009 5006 0008 92015 200477.3040 42019 500(Post the totals and the entries to their respective accounts)g) The petty Cash bookThis is used to record money that has been set aside to make payments that does not require largeamounts, such as cleaning, staff tea, posting letters, etc. it is always kept by the petty cashier,under the supervision of the main cashier. The amount received by the petty cashier is alwaysdebited, while the payments made from the same is credited. The credit side also contains theanalytical columns for various items of expenditure. The amount credited is also extended to theanalysis column for the specific item. At the end of the stated period, the petty cash book isbalanced, and the totals are posted to their individual accounts. The individual’s accounts aredebited with the totals of the analytical columns, while the cash account is credited by the maincashier for the total that was spent in the petty cash book.Petty cash book can also be operated on an imprest system, where the petty cashier receives agiven amount of money at an intervals (imprest) to spend, and report back to the main cashier atthe end of the period on how the money has been spent and the balance still remaining for restocking (reimbursed), and only the amount spent can be reimbursed so that at the beginning ofthe period the petty cashier will always have the full amount (cash float).
For example:A petty cashier of sina chuki traders operate a petty cash book on an imprest of kshs 2 500 on amonthly basis. On 1st February 2010, she had cash in hand of shs 150 and was reimbursed thedifference by the main cashier to restore her cash float. The following payments were madeduring the month of February 2010Feb; 1. Travelling expenses kshs1102. Correcting fluid kshs 2003. Sugar for staff tea ksh 1804. Stamps kshs 25510. Telephone kshs 25515. Entertainment kshs 13018. Postage stamps kshs 10020. Bread for staff tea kshs 14825. Fare kshs 20026. Duplicating ink kshs 25027. Entertainment kshs 40028. Telephone kshs 10028. Atieno a creditor was paid ksh 150Required;Prepare a petty cash book from the above information and post the totals to therelevant ledger accounts.Sina Chuki TradersPetty Cash BookFor month of Feb. 2010Recei L. Date DetailsVouc Tot Trav Offi Staf postag Teleph Ent.Ledgerpt shFh noalelcefeonea/cshexpexptea2010150Feb Bal b/d2 350 C.1ReimbursemB1ent110 uid25525510 Sugar13013015 Stamps10010018 Telephone14814820 Entertainmen200 200
rtainmentTelephoneAtienoTotalsBal 30150150Bal b/dThe totals in the analytical columns are Debited in the individual accounts, with the pettycash book totals being credited in the cash account.h) The general Journal/Journal properThis one is used to record purchases or sales of fixed assets of the business on credit. Theseassets do not form part of the stock since the business does not deal in them, however thebusiness may decide to buy or sell them for one reason or the other.In this journal, the account to be debited begins at the margin, while the account to be credited isindented from the margin, with a narration below them put in brackets. The narration simplyexplains the nature of the transaction that has taken place. The individual entries are then postedto their respective accounts by either debiting or crediting depending on the transactions. It takesthe following format;DateParticulars/detailsGeneral journalLedger folioDr shsCr shsFor example;Journalise then following transactions which took place in the business of J Opuche during themonth of March 2005March 5; Purchased office furniture on credit for shs 25 000 from miugiza Furniture Limited10; Sold ol
Cash receipt journals Cash payment/cash disbursement journals Three column cash book The petty cash book Analysis cash book General journals/journal proper a) Sales journals This is used to record credit sales of goods before they can be recorded in their various ledgers.